•  1043
    Beauty and Metaphysics
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 1 (1). 2009.
    It is shown through examples ranging from Parmenides and Plato to Whitehead and Wittgenstein that beauty is central among the values that have made metaphysical theories appealing and credible. A common attitude would be that the aesthetic properties of metaphysical theories may be important for effective presentation but are irrelevant to the cognitive value of the theories. This however is question-begging, since it assumes without argument that ultimate reality is indifferent to ’value consid…Read more
  •  763
    The Trinity and the New Testament – a Counter-Challenge to Dale Tuggy
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (1): 179-199. 2021.
    Dale Tuggy argues that my trinitarian views are in conflict with the theology of the New Testament; the New Testament, rather, is unitarian. I show several flaws in this argument, and point out the New Testament evidence that eventually led to the formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity.
  •  748
    Materialism and the Resurrection: Are the Prospects Improving?
    European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (1). 2011.
    In 1999 Dean Zimmerman proposed a "falling elevator model" for a bodily resurrection consistent with materialism. Recently, he has defended the model against objections, and a slightly different version has been defended by Timothy O’Connor and Jonathan Jacobs. This article considers both sets of responses, and finds them at best partially successful; a new objection, not previously discussed, is also introduced. It is concluded that the prospects for the falling-elevator model, in either versio…Read more
  •  398
    Light in the Darkness? Reflections on Eleonore Stump’s Theodicy
    Faith and Philosophy 28 (4): 432-450. 2011.
    Eleonore Stump’s Wandering in Darkness: Narrative and the Problem of Suffering is a major contribution to the literature on the problem of evil. This reviewessay summarizes the overall argument of the book, pointing out both merits and difficulties with Stump’s approach. In particular, the essay urges objectionsto the solution she presents for the problem of suffering.
  •  368
    Providence, Evil and the Openness of God (review)
    Faith and Philosophy 25 (3): 350-356. 2008.
    Providence, Evil and the Openness of God is a timely exploration of the philosophical implications of the rapidly-growing theological movement known as open theism, or the 'openness of God'. William Hasker, one of the philosophers prominently associated with this movement, presents the strengths of this position in comparison with its main competitors: Calvinism, process theism, and the theory of divine middle knowledge, or Molinism. The author develops alternative approaches to the problem of e…Read more
  •  306
    Intelligent design
    Philosophy Compass 4 (3): 586-597. 2009.
    The intelligent design movement aspires to create a new scientific paradigm which will replace the existing Darwinian paradigm of evolution by random mutation and natural selection. However, the creation of such a paradigm is hampered by the fact that the movement pursues a 'big tent' strategy that refuses to make a choice between young-earth creationism, old-earth (progressive) creationism, and divinely directed natural selection. The latter two options are discussed in some detail, and it beco…Read more
  •  253
    Afterlife
    The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2010.
    Human beings, like all other organic creatures, die and their bodies decay. Nevertheless, there is a widespread and long-standing belief that in some way death is survivable, that there is “life after death.” The focus in this article is on the possibility that the individual who dies will somehow continue to live, or will resume life at a later time, and not on the specific forms such an afterlife might take. We begin by considering the logical possibility of survival, given different metaphysi…Read more
  •  238
    All too skeptical theism
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1-3): 15-29. 2010.
    Skeptical theism contends that, due to our cognitive limitations, we cannot expect to be able to determine whether there are reasons which justify God’s permission of apparently unjustified evils. Because this is so, the existence of these evils does not constituted evidence against God’s existence. A common criticism is that the skeptical theist is implicitly committed to other, less palatable forms of skepticism, especially moral skepticism. I examine a recent defense against this charge mount…Read more
  •  220
  •  214
    The Emergent Self
    Cornell University Press. 2001.
    In The Emergent Self, William Hasker joins one of the most heated debates in contemporary analytic philosophy, that over the nature of mind.
  •  206
    Is Divine Simplicity a Mistake?
    American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 90 (4): 699-725. 2016.
    This paper presents a broad-ranging critique of the traditional strong doctrine of divine simplicity which is attributed to Augustine and Aquinas. After showing two important arguments in favor of the doctrine to be unsuccessful, it argues that the doctrine itself, in this strong version, is problematic in three main ways. First, the doctrine involves extensive category mistakes. Second, it is difficult to reconcile with truths about God that are universally acknowledged, such as that God knows …Read more
  •  184
    D. Z. Phillips' problems with evil and with God
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (3). 2007.
    It is widely held that the logical problem of evil, which alleges an inconsistency between the existence of evil and that of an omnipotent and morally perfect God, has been solved. D. Z. Phillips thinks this is a mistake. In The Problem of Evil and the Problem of God, he argues that, within the generally assumed framework, “neither the proposition ’God is omnipotent’ nor the proposition ‘God is perfectly good’ can get off the ground.” Thus, the problem of evil leads to the problem of God. Philli…Read more
  •  180
    Suffering, Soul-Making, and Salvation
    International Philosophical Quarterly 28 (1): 3-19. 1988.
  •  175
    How not to be a reductivist
    Progress in Complexity, Information, and Design 2. 2003.
  •  174
    What is the status of belief in God? Must a rational case be made or can such belief be properly basic? Is it possible to reconcile the concept of a good God with evil and suffering? In light of great differences among religions, can only one religion be true? The most comprehensive work of its kind, Reason and Religious Belief, now in its fourth edition, explores these and other perennial questions in the philosophy of religion. Drawing from the best in both classical and contemporary di…Read more
  •  170
    The foreknowledge conundrum
    International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50 (1/3): 97-114. 2001.
  •  156
    God, Time, and Knowledge
    Cornell University Press. 1989.
    ... or engenders a tradition of philosophical reflection, questions will arise about the relation between divine knowledge and power and human freedom. ...
  •  117
  •  111
    Defining 'gratuitous evil': A response to Alan R. Rhoda
    Religious Studies 46 (3): 303-309. 2010.
    In his article, 'Gratuitous evil and divine providence', Alan Rhoda claims to have produced an uncontroversial theological premise for the evidential argument from evil. I argue that his premise is by no means uncontroversial among theists, and I doubt that any premise can be found that is both uncontroversial and useful for the argument from evil
  •  110
    A refutation of middle knowledge
    Noûs 20 (4): 545-557. 1986.
  •  110
    The Dialectic of Soul and Body
    American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 87 (3): 495-509. 2013.
    Thomistic dualism, based on the Aristotelian view of the soul as the form of the body, presents us with a conception of the person as part of the natural world in a way that deserves our attention. The view is outlined, following Eleonore Stump’s exposition, and some objections to it are noted. Consideration is then given to a modified version of Thomistic dualism developed by J. P. Moreland. Finally, attention is directed at the theory of “emergent dualism,” which obtains many of the benefits a…Read more
  •  96
    Providence and evil: Three theories: William Hasker
    Religious Studies 28 (1): 91-105. 1992.
    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented amount of philosophical work on the topics of divine foreknowledge, middle knowledge, and timelessness in relation to human freedom. Most of this effort has been directed at logical and metaphysical aspects of these topics – the compatibility of foreknowledge with free will, the existence of true counterfactuals of freedom and the possibility of middle knowledge, the conceivability and metaphysical possibility of divine timelessness, and so on. Far…Read more
  •  96
    Can God be free?: Rowe's dilemma for theology
    Religious Studies 41 (4): 453-462. 2005.
    In his book, Can God Be Free?, William Rowe has argued that if God is unsurpassably good He cannot be free; if He is free, He cannot be unsurpassably good. After following the discussion of this topic through a number of historical figures, Rowe focuses on the recent and contemporary debate. A key claim of Rowe's is that, if there exists an endless series of better and better creatable worlds, then the existence of a morally perfect creator is impossible. I show that this argument is unsound, si…Read more
  •  93
    Concerning the Unity of Consciousness
    Faith and Philosophy 12 (4): 532-547. 1995.
    Ever since Descartes there have been philosophers who have claimed that the unity of conscious experience argues strongly against the possibility that the mind or self is a material thing. My contention is that the recent neglect of this argument is a mistake, and that it places a serious and perhaps insuperable obstacle in the way of materialist theories of the mind.
  •  90
    The constitution view of persons: A critique
    International Philosophical Quarterly 44 (1): 23-34. 2004.
    This paper discusses the “constitution view” of human persons, as set forth by Lynne Rudder Baker in her book, Persons and Bodies. The metaphysical notion of constitution is explained and briefly defended. It is shown, however, that the view that human persons are constituted by their bodies faces difficulties in specifying the “person-favorable conditions” under which a human body constitutes a person. Furthermore, none of the arguments in support of the claim that humans are constituted by (bu…Read more
  •  84
    Objections to Social Trinitarianism
    Religious Studies 46 (4). 2010.
    This article reviews a number of objections to social Trinitarianism that have been presented in the recent literature, especially objections alleging that social Trinitarianism is not truly monotheistic. A number of the objections are found to be successful so far as they go, but they apply only to some versions of social Trinitarianism and not to all. Objections to social Trinitarianism as such, on the other hand, are not successful. The article concludes with a proposal for a social Trinitari…Read more
  •  83
    Are alternative pasts plausible? A reply to Thomas Flint
    Religious Studies 36 (1): 103-105. 2000.
    Thomas Flint has claimed that my argument against Molinism suffers from a 'seemingly irreparable logical gap'. He also contests a key assumption of that argument, namely that 'something which has had causal consequences in the past is ipso facto a hard, fixed, settled fact about the past'. In reply, I show that there is no logical gap at all in the argument. And I argue that, even though Molinists have reasons, based on Molinist principles, for rejecting the assumption in question, the assumptio…Read more