• The nature of number
    Peter Forrest and D. M. Armstrong
    Philosophical Papers 16 (3): 165-186. 1987.
    No abstract
  • Nomological Resemblance
    Robin Stenwall
    Metaphysica 14 (1): 31-46. 2013.
    Laws of nature concern the natural properties of things. Newton’s law of gravity states that the gravitational force between objects is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance; Coulomb’s law states a similar functional dependency between charged particles. Each of these properties confers a power to act as specified by the function of the laws. Consequently, properties of the same quantity confer resembling powers. Any theory that ta…Read more
  • Definitions and units in mechanics
    J. Gibson Winans
    Foundations of Physics 6 (2): 209-219. 1976.
    With displacement, time, and force as basic undefined physical quantities, other physical quantities are defined as combinations of two vector quantities and one scalar quantity. Combinations include multiplication and division of vectors by vectors, scalars by vectors, and scalars by scalars. Defined quantities are vectors, scalars or quaternions, depending on directions of vectors in the definitions. Division of a vector by a vector is equivalent to multiplication of vectors divided by a scala…Read more
  • The Internal Relatedness of All Things
    Jonathan Schaffer
    Mind 119 (474). 2010.
    The argument from internal relatedness was one of the major nineteenth century neo-Hegelian arguments for monism. This argument has been misunderstood, and may even be sound. The argument, as I reconstruct it, proceeds in two stages: first, it is argued that all things are internally related in ways that render them interdependent; second, the substantial unity of the whole universe is inferred from the interdependence of all of its parts. The guiding idea behind the argument is that failure of …Read more
  • Structural realism: Continuity and its limits
    In Alisa Bokulich & Peter Bokulich (eds.), Scientific Structuralism, Springer Science+business Media. pp. 105--117. 2009.
    Structural realists of nearly all stripes endorse the structural continuity claim. Roughly speaking, this is the claim that the structure of successful scientific theories survives theory change because it has latched on to the structure of the world. In this paper I elaborate, elucidate and modify the structural continuity claim and its associated argument. I do so without presupposing a particular conception of structure that favours this or that kind of structural realism. Instead I focus on …Read more
  • Pt. I. Zeno and the metaphysics of quantity. Zeno's paradox of measure -- Tractarian nominalism -- Logical atoms and combinatorial possibility -- Strict coherence, sigma coherence, and the metaphysics of quantity -- pt. II. Coherent degrees of belief. Higher-order degrees of belief -- A mistake in dynamic coherence arguments? -- Dynamic coherence and probability kinematics -- Updating, supposing, and MAXENT -- The structure of radical probabilism -- Diachronic coherence and radical probabilism -…Read more
  • Recordings as Performances
    Christy Mag Uidhir
    British Journal of Aesthetics 47 (3): 298-314. 2007.
    This article claims that there is no in principle aesthetic difference between a live performance and a recording of that performance, and as such, performance individuation ought to be revised to reflect this. We ought to regard performances as types able to be instantiated both by live performances and by recordings of those performances, or we ought to abandon performances qua aesthetic objects.
  • Hobbes: Geometrical objects
    William Sacksteder
    Philosophy of Science 48 (4): 573-590. 1981.
    Hobbes' philosophy of geometry was eccentric to contemporary movements and worsted in specific controversy. But he laid down stipulations defining geometry and its method which might provide a significant and workable alternative "meta-geometry". Some of these are isolated and reinterpreted here, especially those concerned with describing magnitudes, motions and quantities, and with his use of proportions. Rather than refutation of commentaries and historical rehash, the effort here is to isolat…Read more
  • A puzzle about laws, symmetries and measurability
    John Roberts
    British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (2): 143-168. 2008.
    I describe a problem about the relations among symmetries, laws and measurable quantities. I explain why several ways of trying to solve it will not work, and I sketch a solution that might work. I discuss this problem in the context of Newtonian theories, but it also arises for many other physical theories. The problem is that there are two ways of defining the space-time symmetries of a physical theory: as its dynamical symmetries or as its empirical symmetries. The two definitions are not equ…Read more
  • Old and New Problems in Philosophy of Measurement
    Philosophy Compass 8 (12): 1159-1173. 2013.
    The philosophy of measurement studies the conceptual, ontological, epistemic, and technological conditions that make measurement possible and reliable. A new wave of philosophical scholarship has emerged in the last decade that emphasizes the material and historical dimensions of measurement and the relationships between measurement and theoretical modeling. This essay surveys these developments and contrasts them with earlier work on the semantics of quantity terms and the representational char…Read more
  • Is quantity prior to quality?
    George Kimball Plochmann
    Philosophy of Science 21 (1): 62-67. 1954.
  • Comments on professor Plochmann's "is quantity prior to quality?"
    Thomas Storer
    Philosophy of Science 21 (1): 68-73. 1954.
  • Pragmatics
    Robert C. Stalnaker
    Synthese 22 (1-2): 272--289. 1970.
  • Sensation magnitude judgments are based upon estimates of physical magnitudes
    Richard M. Warren
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (2): 213. 1981.
  • Why pornography can't be art
    Christy Mag Uidhir
    Philosophy and Literature 33 (1). 2009.
    Claims that pornography cannot be art typically depend on controversial claims about essential value differences (moral, aesthetic) between pornography and art. In this paper, I offer a value-neutral exclusionary claim, showing pornography to be descriptively at odds with art. I then show how my view is an improvement on similar claims made by Jerrold Levinson. Finally I draw parallels between art and pornography and art and advertising as well as show that my view is consistent with our typical…Read more
  • The problem of free mass: Must properties cluster?
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (1). 2003.
    Properties come in clusters. It seems impossible, for instance, that a mass could float free, unattached to any other property. David Armstrong takes this as a reductio of the bundle theory and an argument for substrata, while Peter Simons and Arda Denkel reply by supplementing the bundle theory with accounts of property interdependencies. I argue against both views. Virtually all plausible ontologies turn out to be committed to the existence of free masses.
  • Meinong on Measurement
    Erwin Tegtmeier
    Grazer Philosophische Studien 52 161-171. 1996.
    Meinong's realist theory of measurement is brought up against the presently dominating positivist and operationalist view. His criticism of 19th century positivist analysis of measurement (J. v. Kries) turns out to be pertinent to modern model-theoretic analysis (Suppes and Zinnes). Meinong's ontology of quantities as well as his view of associative and derived measurement is confronted with the operational analysis. The positivist cannot make sense of measurement error and tries to push it asid…Read more
  • On the relations of number and quantity
    B. Russell
    Mind 6 (23): 326-341. 1897.
  • The A-theory of time and induction
    Philosophical Studies 152 (3). 2011.
    The A-theory of time says that it is an objective, non-perspectival fact about the world that some events are present, while others were present or will be present. I shall argue that the A-theory has some implausible consequences for inductive reasoning. In particular, the presentist version of the A-theory, which holds that the difference between the present and the non-present consists in the present events being the only ones that exist, is very much in trouble
  • Fantasy, imagination, and film
    Kathleen Stock
    British Journal of Aesthetics 49 (4): 357-369. 2009.
    In his article ‘ Fantasy, Imagination and the Screen ’ , Roger Scruton offers an account of fantasy, arguing that it is directed away from reality in some important sense, and that cinema is its natural representational medium. I address certain problems with Scruton’s basic account, thereby producing a signifi cantly amended version, though one that owes a great debt to his. I explain why, as he says, much fantasy is signifi cantly directed away from reality; and conclude with some brief remark…Read more
  • Quantum reality and mind
    Henry P. Stapp
    Two fundamental questions are addressed within the framework orthodox quantum mechanics. The first is the duality-nonduality conflict arising from the fact that our scientific description of nature has two disparate parts: an empirical component and a theoretical component. The second question is the possibility of meaningful free will in a quantum world concordant with the principle of sufficient reason, which asserts that nothing happens without a sufficient reason. The two issues are resolved…Read more
  • How Fictional Worlds Are Created
    Deena Skolnick Weisberg
    Philosophy Compass 11 (8): 462-470. 2016.
    Both adults and children have the ability to not only think about reality but also use their imaginations and create fictional worlds. This article describes the process by which world creation happens, drawing from philosophical and psychological treatments of this issue. First, world creators recognize the need to create a fictional world, as when starting a pretend game or opening a novel. Then, creators merge some real-world knowledge with the premises of the fictional world to construct a f…Read more
  • On the Metaphysics of Least Action
    Benjamin T. H. Smart and Karim P. Y. Thebault
    In this paper we discuss the compatibility of Alexander Bird's dispositional essentialism with one of our most fundamental physical principles - the principle of least action. Joel Katzav argues that this principle presupposes the contingency of its holding (that is, it presupposes that the system could have followed paths other than that which minimises action), and that this is ruled out by dispositional essentialism. However, Bird argues that only the logical possibility of paths different to…Read more
  • Multi‐track dispositions
    Philosophical Quarterly 63 (251): 330-352. 2013.
    It is a familiar point that many ordinary dispositions are multi-track, that is, not fully and adequately characterisable by a single conditional. In this paper, I argue that both the extent and the implications of this point have been severely underestimated. First, I provide new arguments to show that every disposition whose stimulus condition is a determinable quantity must be infinitely multi-track. Secondly, I argue that this result should incline us to move away from the standard assumptio…Read more
  • The Aharonov-Bohm effect: Still a thought-provoking experiment (review)
    Mark D. Semon and John Taylor
    Foundations of Physics 18 (7): 731-740. 1988.
    In the Aharonov- Bohm effect, electromagnetic potentials alter the two-slit interference pattern formed by an electron beam. We discuss here a curious feature of this effect, namely that, even though the interference pattern changes, none of its moments are shifted
  • Proper Names and their Fictional Uses
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy 89 (4). 2011.
    Fictional names present unique challenges for semantic theories of proper names, challenges strong enough to warrant an account of names different from the standard treatment. The theory developed in this paper is motivated by a puzzle that depends on four assumptions: our intuitive assessment of the truth values of certain sentences, the most straightforward treatment of their syntactic structure, semantic compositionality, and metaphysical scruples strong enough to rule out fictional entities,…Read more
  • On the distinction between absolute and relative motion
    Philosophy of Science 67 (1): 70-93. 2000.
    One of the issues dividing "absolutists" and "relationists" is the question whether all motion is relative motion or, in the words of Earman, spacetime has "structures that support absolute quantities of motion." This paper argues that, despite the enormous literature bearing on the topic, it is problematic to formulate a general criterion for when a quantity counts as absolute in contrast to merely relative in a way that is not hopelessly parasitic on other, presumably distinct, senses of "abso…Read more
  • What Do Powers Do When They Are Not Manifested?
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (1): 137-156. 2006.
    In the present paper, I offer a conceptual argument against the view that all properties are pure powers. I claim that thinking of all properties as pure powers leads to a regress. The regress, I argue, can be solved only if non-powers are admitted. The kernel of my thesis is that any attempt to answer the title question in an informative way will undermine a pure-power view of properties. In particular, I focus my critique on recent arguments in favour of pure powers by the Late George Molnar a…Read more
  • Objective probability-like things with and without objective indeterminism
    László E. Szabó
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 38 (3): 626-634. 2007.
    I shall argue that there is no such property of an event as its “probability.” This is why standard interpretations cannot give a sound definition in empirical terms of what “probability” is, and this is why empirical sciences like physics can manage without such a definition. “Probability” is a collective term, the meaning of which varies from context to context: it means different — dimensionless [0, 1]-valued — physical quantities characterising the different particular situations. In other words…Read more