•  106
    Linking Visions: Feminist Bioethics, Human Rights, and the Developing World
    with Karen L. Baird, María Julia Bertomeu, Martha Chinouya, Michele Harvey-Blankenship, Barbara Ann Hocking, Laura Duhan Kaplan, Jing-Bao Nie, Eileen O'Keefe, Julia Tao Lai Po-wah, Carol Quinn, Arleen L. F. Salles, K. Shanthi, Susana E. Sommer, Rosemarie Tong, and Julie Zilberberg
    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2004.
    This collection brings together fourteen contributions by authors from around the globe. Each of the contributions engages with questions about how local and global bioethical issues are made to be comparable, in the hope of redressing basic needs and demands for justice. These works demonstrate the significant conceptual contributions that can be made through feminists' attention to debates in a range of interrelated fields, especially as they formulate appropriate responses to developments in …Read more
  •  53
    One effect of late capitalism – the commodification of practically everything – is to knock down the Chinese walls between the natural and productive realms, to use a Marxist framework. Women's labour in egg extraction and ‘surrogate’ motherhood might then be seen as what it is, labour which produces something of value. But this does not necessarily mean that women will benefit from the commodification of practically everything, in either North or South. In the newly developing biotechnologies i…Read more
  •  640
    Property in the Body: Feminist Perspectives
    Cambridge University Press. 2007.
    New developments in biotechnology radically alter our relationship with our bodies. Body tissues can now be used for commercial purposes, while external objects, such as pacemakers, can become part of the body. Property in the Body: Feminist Perspectives transcends the everyday responses to such developments, suggesting that what we most fear is the feminisation of the body. We fear our bodies are becoming objects of property, turning us into things rather than persons. This book evaluates how w…Read more
  •  35
    The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook (edited book)
    with Richard Huxtable and Michael Parker
    Cambridge University Press. 2010.
    This new edition of The Cambridge Medical Ethics Workbook builds on the success of the first edition by working from the 'bottom up', with a widely praised case ...
  •  67
    The Lady Vanishes: What’s Missing from the Stem Cell Debate
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2): 43-54. 2006.
    Most opponents of somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell technologies base their arguments on the twin assertions that the embryo is either a human being or a potential human being, and that it is wrong to destroy a human being or potential human being in order to produce stem cell lines. Proponents’ justifications of stem cell research are more varied, but not enough to escape the charge of obsession with the status of the embryo. What unites the two warring sides in ‘the stem ce…Read more
  •  176
    Death, Dying and Bereavement (edited book)
    with Malcolm Johnson and Jeanne Samson Katz
    Sage. 1993.
    Collection of essays, literature and first-person accounts on death, dying and bereavement.
  •  82
    Cross-cultural Issues in European Bioethics
    Bioethics 13 (3-4): 249-255. 1999.
    This article, arising from a comparative European Commission project, analyses different national perspectives on bioethics issues.
  •  141
    The spread of liberal individualism to the family is often portrayed as deeply inimical to the welfare of children and young people. In this view, the family is the bastion of the private and the antithesis of the contractual, rights-oriented model that underpins public life. This chapter examines that proposition critically.
  •  53
    Consent in children
    Current Opinion in Psychiatry 11 389-393. 1998.
    Children and young people under 18 years old should no longer be regarded as incompetent to give or withhold consent in decisions involving their health care, Recent research suggests a functional test of cognitive and emotional maturity, rather than a strict age cut-off point. However, it is often difficult to implement these recommendations in practice, not least because the law is, if anything, increasingly 'hard-line' about children's autonomy.
  •  56
    What should we do about children and young people who want to be tested for incurable, adult onset, genetic disorders? In particular, what should a general practitioner do if he or she believes the young person is competent to decide, but the regional genetics unit refuses to test anyone under 18? In this article I discuss such a case (drawn from actual practice, but anonymised), and consider the arguments for and against allowing the young person to be tested in terms of good practice, case and…Read more
  •  98
    Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio) Ethics (review)
    Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (3): 212-213. 1998.
    Review of Margrit Shildrick, Leaky Bodies and Boundaries
  •  45
    Donating gametes for research and therapy: a reply to Donald Evans
    Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (2): 93-95. 1997.
    There has been a troublesome anomaly in the UK between cash payment to men for sperm donation and the effective assumption that women will pay to donate eggs. Some commentators, including Donald Evans in this journal, have argued that the anomaly should be resolved by treating women on the same terms as men. But this argument ignores important difficulties about property in the body, particularly in relation to gametes. There are good reasons for thinking that the contract model and payment for …Read more
  •  20
    Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Medicine (edited book)
    Cambridge University Press. 2002.
    This book addresses the ethical problems in maternal-fetal medicine which impact directly on clinical practice.
  •  83
    The feminist movement may seek democratization on a global scale, but women are still hampered by a democratic deficit in terms of economic and political power. On the other hand, global feminist networks and new expanded forms of non-territorial political space do appear to be increasing democratic participation for women.
  •  46
    True wishes: the philosophy and developmental psychology of informed consent
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2 (4): 287-303. 1995.
    In this article we explore the underpinnings of what we view as a recent "backlash" in English law, a judicial reaction against considering children's and young people's expressions of their own feelings about treatment as their "true" wishes. We use this case law as a springboard to conceptual discussion, rooted in (a) empirical psychological work on child development and (b) three key philosophical ideas: rationality, autonomy and identity. Using these three concepts, we explore different unde…Read more
  •  44
    Is efficiency ethical? Resource issues in health care
    In Brenda Almond (ed.), Introducing Applied Ethics, Blackwell. pp. 229-246. 1995.
    How can we allocate scarce health care resources justly? In particular, are markets the most efficient way to deliver health services? Much blood, sweat and ink has been shed over this issue, but rarely has either faction challenged the unspoken assumption behind the claim made by advocates of markets: that efficiency advances the interests of both individuals and society. Whether markets actually do increase efficiency is arguably a matter for economists, but the deeper ethical question is whet…Read more
  •  55
    Review of Cynthia Daniels, At Women's Expense (review)
    Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (1): 61. 1995.
    Review of book by Cynthia Daniels, At Women's Expense: State Power and the Politics of Fetal Rights
  •  58
    Review of Daniel Callahan, The Troubled Dream of Life (review)
    Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (3): 188-191. 1995.
    Review of Daniel Callahan's book The Troubled Dream of Life
  •  186
    Nurse time as a scarce health care resource
    In Geoffrey Hunt (ed.), Ethical issues in nursing, Routledge. pp. 207-217. 1994.
    For a long time, discussion about scarce health care resource allocation was limited to allocation of medical resources, with the paradigmatic case being kidney transplants. This narrow focus on medical resource prevents us from seeing that there are many cases-- perhaps even the majority--in which time is the real scarce resource, particularly nurse time. What ethical principles should apply to nurse time as a scarce health care resource?
  •  78
    This chapter considers ethical issues involved in genetic testing and screening for susceptibility to various forms of cancer.
  •  220
    Can children withhold consent to treatment
    with John Devereux and D. P. H. Jones
    British Medical Journal 306 (6890): 1459-1461. 1993.
    A dilemma exists when a doctor is faced with a child or young person who refuses medically indicated treatment. The Gillick case has been interpreted by many to mean that a child of sufficient age and intelligence could validly consent or refuse consent to treatment. Recent decisions of the Court of Appeal on a child's refusal of medical treatment have clouded the issue and undermined the spirit of the Gillick decision and the Children Act 1989. It is now the case that a child patient whose comp…Read more
  •  142
    Who owns embryonic and fetal tissue?
    In Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Cambridge University Press. pp. 233-244. 2002.
    Until very recently the question of who owns embryonic or fetal tissue was of limited importance to clinicians, but advances in stem cell research have made such tissue commercially valuable. This chapter examines the legal and ethical basis of claims to property in embryonic or fetal tissue, taking a critical stance.
  •  135
    To assess whether UK and US health care professionals share the views of medical ethicists about medical futility, withdrawing/withholding treatment, ordinary/extraordinary interventions, and the doctrine of double effect. A 138-item attitudinal questionnaire completed by 469 UK nurses studying the Open University course on "Death and Dying" was compared with a similar questionnaire administered to 759 US nurses and 687 US doctors taking the Hastings Center course on "Decisions near the End of L…Read more
  •  118
    Decision-making competence in adults: a philosopher's viewpoint
    Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 7 (5): 381-387. 2001.
    What does it mean to respect autonomy and encourage meaningful consent to treatment in the case of patients who have dementia or are otherwise incompetent? This question has been thrown into sharp relief by the Law Lords' decision in R.v Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust, ex parte L.
  •  41
    Review of Graeme Laurie, Genetic Privacy (review)
    Journal of Medical Ethics 29 271-374. 2003.
    Review of Graeme Laurie, Genetic Privacy: A Challenge to Medico-Legal Norms
  •  43
    Patently paradoxical? 'Public order' and genetic patents
    Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (2): 86. 2004.
    How heavily should ethical considerations weigh in allowing or disallowing genetic patents? The concept of 'ordre public' can be useful in offsetting a simple utilitarian view.
  •  51
    The threatened trade in human ova
    Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (3): 157. 2004.
    It is well known that there is a shortage of human ova for in vitro fertilization (IVF) purposes, but little attention has been paid to the way in which the demand for ova in stem-cell technologies is likely to exacerbate that shortfall and create a trade in human eggs. Because the 'Dolly' technology relies on enucleated ova in large quantities, allowing for considerable wastage, there is a serious threat that commercial and research demands for human eggs will grow exponentially from the combin…Read more
  •  38
    Did a permissive scientific culture encourage the 'CRISPR babies' experiment?
    with Marcy Darnovsky
    Nature Biotechnology 27 350-369. 2019.
    We review the Nuffield Council on Bioethics 2018 report on germline gene editing and show how its shortcomings are part of an increasingly permissive climate among elite scientists that may well have emboldened the Chinese 'CRISPR babies' experiment. Without a robust and meaningful airing of the perils of human germline modification, these views are likely to encourage additional, more mainstream moves in the same dangerous direction.
  •  218
    The new French resistance: commodification rejected?
    Medical Law International 7 (1): 41-63. 2005.
    In this article I evaluate a resurrected French resistance movement--to biotechnological commodification. The official French view that ‘the body is the person’ has been dismissed as a ‘taboo’ by the French political scientist Dominique Memmi . Yet France has indeed resisted the models of globalised commodification adopted in US bioechnology, as, for example, when the government blocked a research collaboration between the American firm Millennium Pharmaceuticals and a leading genomics laborator…Read more