•  149
    Philosophical assumptions and presumptions about trafficking for prostitution
    In Christien van den Anker & Jeroen Doomernik (eds.), Trafficking and women's rights, Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 43-54. 2006.
    This chapter critically examines two frequently found assumptions in the debate about trafficking for prostitution: 1. That the sale of sexual services is like the sale of any other good or service; 2. That by and large women involved in trafficking for prostitution freely consent to sell such services.
  •  129
    Ownership, property and women's bodies
    In Heather Widdows, Aitsiber Emaldi Cirion & Itziar Alkorta Idiakez (eds.), Women's Reproductive Rights, Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 188-198. 2006.
    Does advocating women's reproductive rights require us to believe that women own property in their bodies? In this chapter I conclude that it does not. Although the concept of owning our own bodies — ‘whose body is it anyway?’ — has polemical and political utility, it is incoherent in philosophy and law. Rather than conflate the entirely plausible concept of women’s reproductive rights and the implausible notion of property in the body, we should keep them separate, so that the weakness of the s…Read more
  •  75
    An uneasy case against Stephen Munzer: umbilical cord blood and property in the body
    American Philosophical Association Newsletter 8 (2). 2009.
    Critical examination of the concept of property in the body, with particular relevance to Stephen Munzer's work on umbilical cord blood
  •  125
    The Lady Vanishes: What’s Missing from the Stem Cell Debate
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1): 43-54. 2006.
    Most opponents of somatic cell nuclear transfer and embryonic stem cell technologies base their arguments on the twin assertions that the embryo is either a human being or a potential human being, and that it is wrong to destroy a human being or potential human being in order to produce stem cell lines. Proponents’ justifications of stem cell research are more varied, but not enough to escape the charge of obsession with the status of the embryo. What unites the two warring sides in ‘the stem ce…Read more
  •  336
    'An alarming and illuminating book. The story of how we have allowed private corporations to patent genes, to stockpile human tissue, and in short to make profits out of what many people feel ought to be common goods is a shocking one. No one with any interest at all in medicine and society and how they interact should miss this book, and it should be required reading for every medical student,'--Philip Pullman
  •  115
    What should be the RCOG's relationship with older women?
    In Reproductive Ageing, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Press. pp. 277-286. 2009.
    A ‘should’ question normally signals work for an ethicist but this ethicist’s task is complicated by the normative dimension of all the chapters in this volume. Each author was asked to come up with three recommendations from their own subject area – ’should’ statements deriving from the ‘is’ analysis that they present. If those prescriptions cover the relevant topics, what more is there for an ethicist to do? I have had a personal interest in obstetricians’ relationship with ‘older women’ since…Read more
  •  49
    Payment for eggs used in stem cell research puts women at unacceptable risk and encourages exploitative commodification of the female body. Thanks to the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, however, we no longer face a choice between good science and good ethics.
  •  121
    Review of Nils Hoppe, Bioequity--Property and the Human Body (review)
    International Journal of Law in Context 6 (4): 397-399. 2010.
    Review of Nils Hoppe book, Bioequity--Property in the Body
  •  24
    True wishes: the philosophy and developmental psychology of children's informed consent
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 2 (4): 287-303. 1995.
    In this article we explore the underpinnings of what we view as a recent" backlash" in English law, a judicial reaction against considering children's and young people's expressions of their own feelings about treatment as their" true" wishes. We use this case law as a springboard to conceptual discussion, rooted in (a) empirical psychological work on child development and (b) three key philosophical ideas: rationality, autonomy and identity.
  •  21
    Global Bioethics
    with Heather Widdows and Sirkku Hellsten
    New Review of Bioethics 1 (1): 101-116. 2003.
    The emergence of global bioethics is connected to a rise of interest in ethics in general (both in academia and in the public sphere), combined with an increasing awareness of the interrelatedness of peoples and their ethical dilemmas, and the recognition that global problems need global solutions. In short, global bioethics has two distinguishing features: first, its global scope, both geographically and conceptually; and second, its focus on justice (communal and individual).
  •  123
    Regulating (or not) reproductive medicine: an alternative to letting the market decide
    Indian Journal of Medical Ethics 8 (3): 175-179. 2011.
    Whilst India has been debating how to regulate 'surrogacy' the UK has undergone a major consultation on increasing the amount of 'expenses'paid to egg 'donors', while France has recently finished debating its entire package of bioethics regulation and the role of its Biomedicine Agency. Although it is often claimed that there is no alternative to the neo-liberal, market-based approach in regulating (or not) reproductive medicine--the ideology prevalent in both India and the UK--advocates of that…Read more
  •  42
    Should we do whatever science lets us do? This short introduction in the 'All That Matters' series shows how developments in biotechnology, such as genetics, stem cell research and artificial reproduction, arouse both our greatest hopes and our greatest fears. Many people invest the new biotechnology with all the aspirations and faith once accorded to religious salvation. But does everyone benefit equally from scientific progress? This book argues that although we've entered new scientific terri…Read more
  •  89
    Personalized genetic medicine: present reality, future prospects
    In Sheldon Krimsky & Jeremy Gruber (eds.), Biotechnology in Our Lives, Skyhorse Publishing. 2013.
    The soaring promises made by personalized genetic medicine advocates are probably loftier than those in any other medical or scientific realm today. Are they justified?
  •  262
    Even in the increasingly individualized American medical system, advocates of 'personalized medicine' claim that healthcare isn't individualized enough. With the additional glamour of new biotechnologies such as genetic testing and pharmacogenetics behind it, 'Me Medicine'-- personalized or stratified medicine-- appears to its advocates as the inevitable and desirable way of the future. Drawing on an extensive evidence base, this book examines whether these claims are justified. It goes on to ex…Read more
  •  43
    It's All About Me
    New Scientist 2934. 2013.
    The growth of personalised medicine threatens the communal approach that has brought our biggest health gains.
  •  1
    In this chapter I argue that the old common law concept of the commons can make a major contribution to how we regulate human tissue and genetic information in the twenty-first century. But if we want to use this concept, we will have to act fast, because private corporate interests have already realised the relevance of the commons for holdings in human tissue and genetic information. Instead of a commonly created and held resource, however, they have sought to create one derived from many pers…Read more
  • Can't Regulate, Won't Regulate? As the global trade in human eggs continues to expand with logarithmic momentum, it is frequently argued that we could not regulate it even if we wanted to. Not all commentators do want to, of course. Many view regulation as counterproductive: reports have suggested that FDA governance has had the perverse effect of increasing levels of reproductive tourism to Latin America. Most of the other chapters in this volume are broadly in favour of letting market forces t…Read more
  •  57
    Interview by Klasien Horstman on gender and genetics. 'Unlike many gender theorists, I do not view the body as socially constructed; nor do I share postmodern and deconstructionist disquiet at the notion of a unified subject. Frankly, I think these constructions get in the way of political action and are bad for women’s rights.'
  •  122
    Testing times for the consumer genetics revolution
    The New Scientist 221 (2251): 26-27. 2014.
    With the highest profile seller of $99 genetic tests under fire, will public trust in personalised medicine suffer?
  •  127
    Disappearing women, vanishing ladies and property in embryos
    International Journal of Law and the Biosciences 4 1-6. 2017.
    Guidelines on embryo storage prioritise 'respect for the embryo' above the wishes of the women whose labour and tissue have gone into creating the embryo in the first place, effectively making women and the female body disappear. In this article I draw a parallel between this phenomenon relating to embryo storage and other instances of a similar phenomenon that I have called 'the lady vanishes', particularly in stem cell and 'mitochondrial transfer' research. I suggest that a modified property r…Read more
  •  107
    How can intellectuals who oppose the illegitimate war in Iraq come to similar terms with the U.S. neoconservatives, and their unrepentant British collaborators, who have stranded us in it? In the Tempest, Shakespeare’s most political play, comedy though it is meant to be, intellectuals are warned not to consider themselves guiltless. But how can those who marched against the war, or who tried to speak truth to power in other ways, be guilty of its misuses? Surely this is too harsh a view of the …Read more
  •  91
    The rise of personalised medicine can be seen as an extension of individualism and as a threat to the common good.
  •  67
    Not so fast
    with Marcy Darnovsky
    New Scientist 222 28-29. 2014.
    Three-parent IVF is proceeding towards partial legalisation in the UK, but is this process too hasty?
  •  11
    Bioscience policies
    eLS (Formerly Known as the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences). 2015.
    The rapid pace of change in the biosciences makes setting biotechnology policies and regulating the sciences difficult for governments, but no less necessary for that. Although government policies around the globe are sometimes classed as ‘pro-science’ or ‘anti-science’, that is a misleading oversimplification. Nurturing the ‘bioeconomy’ is a key goal for most national governments, leading in the UK to a comparatively loose regulatory policy, for example in relation to mitochondrial transfer and…Read more
  •  7
    Feminist perspectives on human genetics and reproductive technologies
    eLS (Formerly Known as the Encyclopedia of Life Sciences). 2016.
    Feminism offers three separate but equally important insights about human genetics and the new reproductive technologies. First, feminism is concerned with ways in which these new technologies have the potential to exploit women, particularly in the treatment of their reproductive tissue, while seeming to offer both sexes greater reproductive freedom. This risk has been largely ignored by much bioethics, which has concentrated on choice and autonomy at the expense of justice, giving it little to…Read more
  • The commodification of women's reproductive tissue and services
    In Leslie Francis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Reproductive Ethics, Oxford University Press. pp. 118-140. 2017.
    Although the term commodification is sometimes criticised as imprecise or overused, in fact it has a complex philosophical ancestry and can never be used too much, because the phenomena that it describes are still gaining ground. The issues that commodification raises in relation to reproductive technologies include whether it is wrong to commodify human tissues generally and gametes particularly, and whether the person as subject and the person as object can be distinguished in modern biomedici…Read more
  •  1
    The common good
    In Roger Brownsword, Eloise Scotford & Karen Yeung (eds.), The Oxford of the Law and Regulation of Biotechnology, Oxford University Press. pp. 135-152. 2017.
    In conventional thinking, the promise of scientific progress gives automatic and unquestioned legitimacy to any new development in biotechnology. It is the nearest thing we have in a morally relativistic society to the concept of the common good. This chapter begins by examining a recent case study, so-called ‘mitochondrial transfer’ or three-person IVF, in which policymakers appeared to accept that this new technology should be effectively deregulated because that would serve UK national scient…Read more
  •  121
    Ethical qualms about genetic prognosis
    Canadian Medical Association Journal 188 (6): 1-2. 2016.
    The debate about direct-to-consumer genetic testing has centred on whether consumers are the best judges of their own clinical care. Inthis article, I also examine whether the science of personalized medicine is really as advanced as its proponents claim, and how the availability of genetic markers affects decisions on who gets and does not get medical treatment.
  •  200
    This book contributes to the feminist reconstruction of political theory. Although many feminist authors have pointed out the ways in which women have been property, they have been less successful in suggesting how women might become the subjects rather than the objects of property-holding. This book synthesises political theory from liberal, Marxist, Kantian and Hegelian traditions, applying these ideas to history and social policy.
  •  201
    Personalised Medicine, Individual Choice and the Common Good (edited book)
    with Britta van Beers and Sigrid Sterckx
    Cambridge University Press. 2018.
    This is a volume of twelve essays concerning the fundamental tension in personalised medicine between individual choice and the common good.