•  15
    A Continuation of Atomism: Shahrastānī on the Atom and Continuity
    Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (4): 595-619. 2019.
    while it should go without saying, it bears mentioning: the history of atomism in the medieval Islamic East is not the same as that of the medieval Christian West. One simply cannot assume that what is true of the conception of the atom in the West also need be true of the conception of the atom in the East, or even that the two traditions are drawing upon and responding to the same set of literature. In fact, the question is open as to whether these two histories even share a common origin. Whi…Read more
  • Medieval Philosophy of Religion
    with G. R. Evans, John Marenbon, Dermot Moran, Syed Nomanul Haq, Jon Mcginnis, and Thomas Williams
    Acumen Publishing. 2013.
    Volume 2 covers one of the richest eras for the philosophical study of religion. Covering the period from the 6th century to the Renaissance, this volume shows how Christian, Islamic and Jewish thinkers explicated and defended their religious faith in light of the philosophical traditions they inherited from the ancient Greeks and Romans. The enterprise of 'faith seeking understanding', as it was dubbed by the medievals themselves, emerges as a vibrant encounter between - and a complex synthesis…Read more
  •  18
    The study begins with the language employed in and the psychological basis of thought experiments as understood by certain medieval Arabic philosophers. It then provides a taxonomy of different kinds of thoughts experiments used in the medieval Islamic world. These include purely fictional thought experiments, idealizations and finally thought experiments using ingenious machines. The study concludes by suggesting that thought experiments provided a halfway house during this period between a sta…Read more
  • Making Time Aristotle's Way
    Apeiron: A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 36 (2): 143-170. 2003.
  •  27
    While the little-known thinker Sharaf al-Dīn al-Mas'ūdī may have had doubts concerning the Ishārāt of the great Persian philosopher Avicenna, no one should have doubts concerning Ayman Shihadeh's brilliant Doubts on Avicenna: A Study and Edition of Sharaf al-Dīn al-Mas'ūdī's Commentary on the Ishārāt. Professor Shihadeh's volume is a rich study of Mas'ūdī's alMabāḥith wa-l-shukūk 'alā Kitāb al-Ishārāt, which additionally offers the first critical edition of that work. Doubts on Avicenna affords …Read more
  •  11
    Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources (review)
    Speculum 84 (1): 188-189. 2009.
  • Time and Time Again: A Study of Aristotle and Ibn Sina's Temporal Theories
    Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 2000.
    The dissertation examines the temporal theories of Aristotle and the Muslim Aristotelian, Ibn Sina . After considering Aristotelian science and sketching Aristotle's theory of physics, the dissertation picks up a series of puzzles concerning the reality of time. The central puzzle is a dilemma, which seemingly shows that the now can neither change nor remain the same. The dilemma is important, since one's solution to it affects the way one envisions time. Aristotle's solution, I argue, is to sho…Read more
  • Logic and Science: The Role of Genus and Difference in Avicenna's Logic, Science and Natural Philosophy
    Documenti E Studi Sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale 18 165-186. 2007.
    Il naturale senso della logica in relazione alla scienza è quello di fornire un linguaggio alle acquisizioni epistemologiche: tale sembra essere il senso assegnatogli anche da Avicenna in al-Mantiq. La questione in realtà è molto più profonda: quale relazione c'è fra gli universali predicabili e gli oggetti della scienza? Attraverso l'esame della questione quale è delineata nel Madkhal, in particolare in merito al genere e alla differenza, e il loro ruolo nelle scienze in alcuni passaggi del Kit…Read more
  •  13
    Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources (edited book)
    with David C. Reisman
    Hackett. 2007.
    This volume introduces the major classical Arabic philosophers through substantial selections from the key works (many of which appear in translation for the first time here) in each of the fields—including logic, philosophy of science, natural philosophy, metaphysics, ethics, and politics—to which they made significant contributions. An extensive Introduction situating the works within their historical, cultural, and philosophical contexts offers support to students approaching the subject for …Read more
  •  8
    Alexander of Aphrodisias on the Cosmos
    with Charles Genequand
    Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (1): 103. 2004.
  •  86
    Scientific Methodologies in Medieval Islam
    Journal of the History of Philosophy 41 (3): 307-327. 2003.
    : The present study considers Ibn Sînâ's (Lat. Avicenna) account of induction (istiqra') and experimentation (tajriba). For Ibn Sînâ induction purportedly provided the absolute, necessary and certain first principles of a science. Ibn Sînâ criticized induction, arguing that it can neither guarantee the necessity nor provide the primitiveness required of first principles. In it place, Ibn Sînâ developed a theory of experimentation, which avoids the pitfalls of induction by not providing absolute,…Read more
  •  1
    One of the most fundamental notions in the thought of Aristotle is the distinction between actuality and potentiality, which Aristotle links with the equally fundamental distinction between form and matter respectively. According to Aristotle, form, which brings with it actuality, and matter, which brings with it potentiality, are eternal and as such necessary. Consequently, on Aristotle?s view, neither form nor matter needs an efficient cause for its existence. Later thinkers?both in the Greek …Read more
  • Book Review (review)
    Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (4): 729-730. 2001.
  •  56
    The Eternity of the World: Proofs and Problems in Aristotle, Avicenna, and Aquinas
    American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 88 (2): 271-288. 2014.
    This study looks at the position of two of the Middle Ages’ towering intellectual figures, Avicenna and Aquinas, and their arguments concerning the age of the cosmos. The primary focus is the nature of possibility and whether possibility is such that God can create it or such that its “existence” has some degree of independence from God’s creative act. It is shown how one’s answer to this initial question in turn has enormous ramifications on a number of other, core theological topics. These iss…Read more
  •  42
    An Introduction to Medieval Philosophy: Basic Concepts (review)
    Teaching Philosophy 32 (4): 417-420. 2009.
  •  10
    Making Abstraction Less Abstract: The Logical, Psychological, and Metaphysical Dimensions of Avicenna’s Theory of Abstraction
    Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 80 169-183. 2006.
    A debated topic in Avicennan psychology is whether for Avicenna abstraction is a metaphor for emanation or to be taken literally. This issue stems from the deeper philosophical question of whether humans acquire intelligibles externally from an emanation by the Active Intellect, which is a separate substance, or internally from an inherently human cognitive process, which prepares us for an emanation from the Active Intellect. I argue that the tension between thesedoctrines is only apparent. In …Read more
  •  5
    History of Islamic Philosophy
    with Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman
    Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (4): 855. 2002.