St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America
  •  819
    Feminist ethics supports the contemporary educational trend toward increased multiculturalism and a diminished emphasis on the Western canon. First, I outline a feminist ethical justification for this development. Second, I argue that Western canon studies should not be altogether abandoned in a multicultural curriculum. Third, I suggest that multicultural education should help combat oppression in addition to simply promoting awareness of diversity. Fourth, I caution against an arrogant moralis…Read more
  •  216
    A contribution to the feminist discussion on moral theory, exploring the debate between moral impartiality and the partiality that characterizes personal relationships, the ethic of care and its relation to justice in a gender asymmetrical society, and the role of intimate friendship in an era of the dissolution of both extended and nuclear families.
  •  188
  •  181
    Autonomy and the split-level self
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (1): 19-35. 1986.
  •  147
    Care ethics and moral theory: Review essay of Virginia held, the ethics of care (review)
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 77 (2): 539-555. 2008.
    No Abstract
  •  144
    Autonomy, Gender, Politics
    Oxford University Press. 2002.
    Women have historically been prevented from living autonomously by systematic injustice, subordination, and oppression. The lingering effects of these practices have prompted many feminists to view autonomy with suspicion. Here, Marilyn Friedman defends the ideal of feminist autonomy. In her eyes, behavior is autonomous if it accords with the wants, cares, values, or commitments that the actor has reaffirmed and is able to sustain in the face of opposition. By her account, autonomy is socially g…Read more
  •  138
    Friendship and moral growth
    Journal of Value Inquiry 23 (1): 3-13. 1989.
  •  127
    The practice of partiality
    Ethics 101 (4): 818-835. 1991.
    This essay counteracts that trend [regarding the debate about whether partiality can be justified, those supporting impartiality have generally been on the offensive arguing that morality calls for impartiality] by taking a closer look at the moral complexity of our social practices of partiality. My adoption of this approach does not represent an endorsement of current notions of impartiality. The ideal of impartiality, in my view, should be substantially reformulated. However, that the concept…Read more
  •  114
    How to Blame People Responsibly
    Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (3): 271-284. 2013.
  •  104
    The Impracticality of Impartiality
    Journal of Philosophy 86 (11): 645-656. 1989.
  •  92
    Moral integrity and the deferential wife
    Philosophical Studies 47 (1). 1985.
  •  88
    Feminism in ethics: Conceptions of autonomy
    In Miranda Fricker & Jennifer Hornsby (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Feminism in Philosophy, Cambridge University Press. pp. 205--24. 2000.
  •  81
    Female Terrorists: What Difference Does Gender Make?
    Social Philosophy Today 23 189-200. 2007.
    Should women’s terrorist acts be understood differently than similar acts carried out by men? Does the gender identity of a terrorist make a difference to the meaning of a terrorist’s acts? Commentators who explain women’s involvement in terrorism often offer explanations other than political commitment. They often refer instead to factors in the women’s personal relationships, thereby drawing on gender stereotypes and diminishing the women’s political commitments. I suggest instead that terrori…Read more
  •  81
    Pettit's civic republicanism and male domination
    In Cécile Laborde & John W. Maynor (eds.), Republicanism and Political Theory, Blackwell. 2008.
  •  78
    Women’s Autonomy and Feminist Aspirations
    Journal of Philosophical Research 21 331-340. 1996.
    Autonomy has risen in esteem, then fallen, only to rise again in recent theorizing about women in society and culture. In this paper, I further bolster the renewed feminist interest in autonomy. I characterize feminist social aspirations in terms of three very abstract goals and then argue that women’s individual autonomy promotes at least two of them in crucial ways. Women’s autonomy will improve the quality of the close personal relationships that pervade women’s traditional moral concems (the…Read more
  •  74
    Can men who dominate women nevertheless be happy or lead flourishing lives? Building on Claudia Card's exploration of moral luck, this paper considers the belief that male dominators cannot be happy. The discussion ranges over both virtue theory and empirical research into the "belief in a just world." I conclude that there are reasons to avoid believing that male dominators cannot be happy or flourish, and that feminism does not need that belief
  •  71
    Political Correctness: For and Against
    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 1994.
    Two prominent philosophers here engage in a forthright debate over some of the centrally disputed topics in the political correctness controversy now taking place on college campuses across the nation, including feminism, campus speech codes, the western canon, and the nature of truth. Friedman and Narveson conclude the volume with direct replies to each other's positions
  •  69
    This paper raises some minor questions about Lisa Tessman’s book, Burdened Virtues. Friedman’s questions pertain, among other things, to the adequacy of a virtue ethical focus on character, the apparent implication of virtue ethics that oppressors suffer damaged characters and are not any better off than the oppressed, the importance of whether privileged persons may have earned their privileges, and the oppositional anger that movement feminists sometimes direct against each other.
  •  66
    : Nancy J. Hirschmann presents a feminist, social constructionist account of women's freedom. Friedman's discussion of Hirschmann's account deals with (1) some conceptual problems facing a thoroughgoing social constructionism; (2) three ways to modify social constructionism to avoid those problems; and (3) an assessment of Hirschmann's version of social constructionism in light of the previous discussion
  •  56
    Women and Citizenship (edited book)
    Oup Usa. 2005.
    This highly interdisciplinary volume explores the political and cultural dimensions of citizenship and their relevance to women and gender. Containing essays by leading scholars such as Iris Marion Young, Alison Jaggar, Martha Nussbaum, and Sandra Bartky, it examines the conceptual issues and strategies at play in the feminist quest to give women full citizenship status. The contributors take a fresh look at issues, going beyond conventional critiques, and examining problems in the political and…Read more
  •  56
    Harming Women as a Group
    with Larry May
    Social Theory and Practice 11 (2): 207-234. 1985.
  •  54
    This review of Janice Raymond's A Passion for Friends focuses on her strong sense of the individual and of individuality. However, and this is the central contention of my paper, her perspective is quite distinct from liberal individualism. It is also a complex variation on the feminist concern with selves in relationships.
  •  36
    Beyond Caring: The De-Moralization of Gender
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (sup1): 87-110. 1987.