•  261
    Analysing Holocaust Survivor Testimony
    In S. Krämer & S. Weigel (eds.), Testimony / Bearing Witness, Rowman & Littlefied. pp. 137-167. 2017.
  •  193
    Epistemic relativism, scepticism, pluralism
    Synthese 194 (12): 4687-4703. 2017.
    There are a number of debates that are relevant to questions concerning objectivity in science. One of the eldest, and still one of the most intensely fought, is the debate over epistemic relativism. —All forms of epistemic relativism commit themselves to the view that it is impossible to show in a neutral, non-question-begging, way that one “epistemic system”, that is, one interconnected set of epistemic standards, is epistemically superior to others. I shall call this view “No-metajustificatio…Read more
  •  174
    Two kinds of actions: A phenomenological study
    with H. M. Collins
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (4): 799-819. 1995.
    In this paper, we will explain and analyse a phenomenological distinction between two kinds of actions. The distinction we have in mind is the difference between those actions that actors try, or are satisfied, to carry out, in like situations, ‘in the same way’, and all other actions. We call the first kind ‘mimeomorphic actions’ and the second kind ‘polimorphic actions’. We will define these two kinds of actions, and their species, on the basis of their characteristic intentions and experience…Read more
  •  172
    Hacking’s historical epistemology: a critique of styles of reasoning
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (2): 158-173. 2010.
    The paper begins with a detailed reconstruction of the development of Ian Hacking’s theory of scientific ‘styles of reasoning’, paying particular attention to Alistair Crombie’s influence, and suggesting that Hacking’s theory deserves to come under the title ‘historical epistemology’. Subsequently, the paper seeks to establish three critical theses. First, Hacking’s reliance on Crombie leads him to adopt an outdated historiographical position; second, Hacking is unsuccessful in his attempt to di…Read more
  •  151
    Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49 69-79. 2015.
  •  141
    Wittgenstein on Mathematics and Certainties
    International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 6 (2-3): 120-142. 2016.
    _ Source: _Volume 6, Issue 2-3, pp 120 - 142 This paper aims to contribute to the debate over epistemic versus non-epistemic readings of the ‘hinges’ in Wittgenstein’s _On Certainty_. I follow Marie McGinn’s and Daniele Moyal-Sharrock’s lead in developing an analogy between mathematical sentences and certainties, and using the former as a model for the latter. However, I disagree with McGinn’s and Moyal-Sharrock’s interpretations concerning Wittgenstein’s views of both relata. I argue that mathe…Read more
  •  133
    Martin Kusch puts forth two controversial ideas: that knowledge is a social status and that knowledge is primarily the possession of groups rather than individuals. He defends the radical implications of his views: that knowledge is political, and that it varies with communities. This bold approach to epistemology is a challenge to philosophy and the wider academic world
  •  126
    Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 57 106-113. 2016.
  •  125
    In the 1890's, when fields such as psychology and philosophy were just emerging, turf wars between the disciplines were common-place. Philosophers widely discounted the possibility that psychology's claim to empirical truth had anything relevant to offer their field. And psychologists, such as the crazed and eccentric Otto Weinegger, often considered themselves philosophers. Freud, it is held, was deeply influenced by his wife, Martha's, uncle, who was also a philosopher. The tension between the…Read more
  •  93
    In 1990 Edward Craig published a book called Knowledge and the State of Nature in which he introduced and defended a genealogical approach to epistemology. In recent years Craig’s book has attracted a lot of attention, and his distinctive approach has been put to a wide range of uses including anti-realist metaepistemology, contextualism, relativism, anti-luck virtue epistemology, epistemic injustice, value of knowledge, pragmatism and virtue epistemology. While the number of objections to Craig…Read more
  •  71
    Testimony: a primer
    with Peter Lipton
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2): 209-217. 2002.
  •  64
    This paper tries to motivate three desiderata for historical epistemologies: (a) that they should be reflective about the pedigree of their conceptual apparatus; (b) that they must face up to the potentially relativistic consequences of their historicism; and (c) that they must not forget the hard-won lessons of microhistory (i.e. historical events must be explained causally; historical events must not be artificially divided into internal/intellectual and external/social “factors” or “levels”; …Read more
  •  62
  •  60
    Testimony in communitarian epistemology
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (2): 335-354. 2002.
    This paper suggests a new way of analysing testimony. The starting point of the analysis is ‘epistemological communitarianism’. This is the view that communities, rather than individuals, are the primary bearers of knowledge. The new perspective is developed through a discussion of four issues: the scope of testimony; the role of inferences in the reception and evaluation of testimony; the possibility of a global justification of testimony; and the question of whether testimony is a generative s…Read more
  •  56
    Microscopes and the Theory-Ladenness of Experience in Bas van Fraassen’s Recent Work
    Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (1): 167-182. 2015.
    Bas van Fraassen’s recent book Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective modifies and refines the “constructive empiricism” of The Scientific Image in a number of ways. This paper investigates the changes concerning one of the most controversial aspects of the overall position, that is, van Fraassen’s agnosticism concerning the veridicality of microscopic observation. The paper tries to make plausible that the new formulation of this agnosticism is an advance over the older rendering. …Read more
  •  53
  •  51
    This paper seeks to defend, develop, and revise Edward Craig's “genealogy of knowledge”. The paper first develops the suggestion that Craig's project is naturally thought of as an important instance of “social cognitive ecology”. It then introduces the genealogy of knowledge and some of its main problems and weaknesses, suggesting that these are best taken as challenges for further work rather than as refutations. The central sections of the paper conduct a critical dialogue between Craig's theo…Read more
  •  50
    De-idealizing Disagreement, Rethinking Relativism
    International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (1): 40-71. 2018.
    Relativism is often motivated in terms of certain types of disagreement. In this paper, we survey the philosophical debates over two such types: faultless disagreement in the case of gustatory conflict, and fundamental disagreement in the case of epistemic conflict. Each of the two discussions makes use of a implicit conception of judgement: brute judgement in the case of faultless disagreement, and rule-governed judgement in the case of fundamental disagreement. We show that the prevalent accou…Read more
  •  48
    No other recent book in Anglophone philosophy has attracted as much criticism and has found so few friends as Saul Kripke's "Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language". Amongst its critics, one finds the very top of the philosophical profession. Yet, it is rightly counted amongst the books that students of philosophy, at least in the Anglo-American world, have to read at some point in their education. Enormously influential, it has given rise to debates that strike at the very heart of contempo…Read more
  •  47
    On "Why Is There Something Rather than Nothing?"
    American Philosophical Quarterly 27 (3). 1990.
  •  43
    The Metaphysics and Politics of Corporate Personhood
    Erkenntnis 79 (S9): 1587-1600. 2014.
    This paper consists of brief critical comments on Chapter 8, “Personifying Group Agents”, of Christian List’s and Philip Pettit’s book Group Agency (2011). A first set of objections concerns the chapter’s history of ideas. List and Pettit present the history of the idea of corporate personhood as divided between “intrinsicist” and “performative” conceptions. I argue that this distinction does not fit with the historical record and that it makes important political and legal divides and battles i…Read more
  •  40
    Explanation and understanding: The debate over Von Wright's philosophy of action revisited
    Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 80 (1): 327-353. 2003.
    Finland is internationally known as one of the leading centers of twentieth century analytic philosophy. This volume offers for the first time an overall survey of the Finnish analytic school. The rise of this trend is illustrated by original articles of Edward Westermarck, Eino Kaila, Georg Henrik von Wright, and Jaakko Hintikka. Contributions of Finnish philosophers are then systematically discussed in the fields of logic, philosophy of language, philosophy of science, history of philosophy, e…Read more
  •  39
    Wittgenstein as a Commentator on the Psychology and Anthropology of Colour
    In Stefan Riegelnik & Frederik A. Gierlinger (eds.), Wittgenstein on Colour, De Gruyter. pp. 93-108. 2014.