•  13
    Treating Patients With Infectious Diseases: An Essay in the Ethics of Dentistry
    Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 2 (1/2): 51-65. 1993.
  •  48
    Torture and the inhumane
    Criminal Justice Ethics 26 (2): 29-43. 2007.
    No abstract
  •  67
    What’s philosophically interesting about engineering ethics?
    Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (3): 353-361. 2003.
    What makes a subject philosophically interesting is hard-to-resolve confusion about fundamental concepts. Engineering ethics suffers from at least three such fundamental confusions. First, there is confusion about what the “ethics” in engineering ethics is (ordinary morality, philosophical ethics, special standards, or something else?) Second, there is confusion about what the profession of engineering is (a function, discipline, occupation, kind of organization, or something else?) Third, there…Read more
  •  34
    Why journalism is a profession
    In Christopher Meyers (ed.), Journalism Ethics: A Philosophical Approach, Oxford University Press. pp. 91--102. 2010.
  • Whistleblowing
    In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics, Oxford University Press. 2003.
  •  26
    The Special Role of Professionals in Business Ethics
    Business and Professional Ethics Journal 7 (2): 51-62. 1988.
  •  18
    The Price of a Person
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1): 105-114. 2016.
    While we’re inclined to think that a person is “above all price,” we in fact make a lot of decisions that seem to set a price on persons—or, at least, on their life. For example, I was recently involved with setting standards for buildings in areas susceptible to earthquakes. The consensus seemed to be $3/sq. ft. increase in construction cost was reasonable, more than that was not, even though lives could be saved if the standard were higher, assuring the survival of more buildings. Though the F…Read more
  •  27
    Torturing Professions
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (2): 243-263. 2008.
    What are the conceptual connections between torture and profession? Exploring this question requires exploring at least two others. Before we can work out the conceptual connections between profession and torture, we must have a suitable conception of both profession and torture. We seem to have several conceptions of each. So, I first identify several alternative conceptions of profession, explaining why one should be preferred over the others. Next, I do the same for torture; and then, I argue…Read more
  •  18
    The One-Sided Obligations of Journalism
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (3-4): 207-222. 2004.
    Barger and Barney (2004/this issue) offered a number of reasons for the public, the news media, and journalism to develop special, mutually supportive standards of conduct. However, they imbedded these reasonable suggestions in an argument that claims far more than can be delivered. In explaining what is wrong with their argument, I place journalistic ethics within a general theory of professional ethics.
  •  252
    The Moral Justifiability of Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2): 161-178. 2005.
    Since Henry Shue’s classic 1978 paper on torture, the “ticking-bomb case” has seemed to demonstrate that torture is morally justified in some moral emergencies (even if not as an institution). After presenting an analysis of torture as such and an explanation of why it, and anything much like it, is morally wrong, I argue that the ticking-bomb case demonstrates nothing at all—for at least three reasons. First, it is an appeal to intuition. The intuition is not as widely shared as necessary to co…Read more
  •  22
    Technical Decisions: Time to Rethink the Engineer’s Responsibilities?
    Business and Professional Ethics Journal 11 (3/4): 41-55. 1992.
  •  3
    Trumping Conflicts of Interest in advance
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy. forthcoming.
  •  15
    Trumping Conflicts of Interest
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1): 9-20. 2017.
    As President, Donald Trumps faces two sorts of conflict of interest. The first are conflicts of interest other Presidents also faced, though Trump’s are “writ large.” These seem—as a practical matter—unavoidable now, hard to escape, not to be much changed by disclosure, and not even much subject to management. The other sort of conflict of interest seems to be without resolution even in principle while Trump remains both President and the person he is. These conflicts of interest are the product…Read more
  •  144
    Some Paradoxes of Whistleblowing
    Business and Professional Ethics Journal 15 (1): 3-19. 1996.
  •  34
    Science: After Such Knowledge, What Responsibility?
    Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 4 (1): 49-74. 1995.
  •  35
    Rhetoric, technical writing, and ethics
    Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (4): 463-478. 1999.
    Many outside science and engineering, especially social scientists and “rhetoricians”, claim that rhetoric, “the art of persuasion”, is an important part of technical communication. This claim is either trivial or false. If “persuasion” simply means “effective communication”, then, of course, rhetoric is an important part of technical communication. But, if “persuasion” has anything like its traditional meaning (a specific art of winning conviction), rhetoric is not an important part of technica…Read more
  •  17
    Replacement as a Problem for the Justification of Preventive Detention
    Criminal Justice Ethics 30 (1): 90-97. 2011.
    No abstract
  •  20
    Report Cards
    with Christopher Meyers, Lisa Newton, and Elliot Cohen
    Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (3-4): 161-165. 2004.
    This Article does not have an abstract
  •  116
    This paper describes developments in punishment theory since the middle of the twentieth century. After the mid–1960s, what Stanley I. Benn called “preventive theories of punishment”—whether strictly utilitarian or more loosely consequentialist like his—entered a long and steep decline, beginning with the virtual disappearance of reform theory in the 1970s. Crowding out preventive theories were various alternatives generally (but, as I shall argue, misleadingly) categorized as “retributive”. The…Read more
  •  21
    Professional Autonomy: A Framework for Empirical Research
    Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (4): 441-460. 1996.
    Employed professionals -and those who study them-sometimes claim that their status as employeesdenies them the “autonomy” necessary to be “true professionals.” Is this a conceptual claim or an empirical claim? How might it be proved or disproved? This paper draws on recent work on autonomy to try to answer these questions. In the course of doing that, it identifies three literatures concerned with autonomy and suggests an approach bringing them together in a way likely to be useful both to philo…Read more
  •  22
    Professional Autonomy: A Framework for Empirical Research
    Business Ethics Quarterly 6 (4): 441-460. 1996.
    Employed professionals (e.g., accountants or engineers)-and those who study them-sometimes claim that their status as employeesdenies them the “autonomy” necessary to be “true professionals.” Is this a conceptual claim or an empirical claim? How might it be proved or disproved? This paper draws on recent work on autonomy to try to answer these questions. In the course of doing that, it identifies three literatures concerned with autonomy and suggests an approach bringing them together in a way l…Read more
  •  2
    Justifying torture as an act of war
    In Larry May & Emily Crookston (eds.), War: Essays in Political Philosophy, Cambridge University Press. 2008.
  •  58
    Integrating ethics into technical courses: Micro-insertion (review)
    Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4): 717-730. 2006.
    Perhaps the most common reason science and engineering faculty give for not including “ethics” (that is, research ethics, engineering ethics, or some discussion of professional responsibility) in their technical classes is that “there is no room”. This article 1) describes a technique (“micro-insertion”) that introduces ethics (and related topics) into technical courses in small enough units not to push out technical material, 2) explains where this technique might fit into the larger undertakin…Read more
  •  73
    Imaginary Cases in Ethics: A Critique
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1): 1-17. 2012.
    By “case,” I mean a proxy for some state of affairs, event, sequence of events, or other fact. A case may be as short as a phrase or longer than War and Peace. A case may consist of words or have a more dramatic form, such as a movie, stage performance, or computer simulation. Imaginary cases plainly have an important role in contemporary ethics, especially in applied or practical ethics. This paper is a systematic critique of imaginary cases in ethics. There are two main parts. The first explai…Read more
  •  59
    Harm and retribution
    Philosophy and Public Affairs 15 (3): 236-266. 1986.
  •  125
    Eighteen rules for writing a code of professional ethics
    Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2): 171-189. 2007.
    Most professional societies, scientific associations, and the like that undertake to write a code of ethics do so using other codes as models but without much (practical) guidance about how to do the work. The existing literature on codes is much more concerned with content than procedure. This paper adds to guidance already in the literature what I learned from participating in the writing of an important code of ethics. The guidance is given in the form of “rules” each of which is explained an…Read more
  • Engineering as Profession: Some Methodological Problems in Its Study
    In Byron Newberry, Carl Mitcham, Martin Meganck, Andrew Jamison, Christelle Didier & Steen Hyldgaard Christensen (eds.), Engineering Identities, Epistemologies and Values, Springer Verlag. 2015.