•  42
    The scope argument
    Journal of Philosophy 100 (3). 2003.
  •  30
    Using Bibliometrics to Support the Facilitation of Cross-Disciplinary Communication
    with Christopher J. Williams, Sanford D. Eigenbrode, Ian O'Loughlin, and Stephen Crowley
    Journal of the American Society for Information Science 64 (9): 1768-1779. 2013.
    Given the importance of cross-disciplinary research, facilitating CDR effectiveness is a priority for many institutions and funding agencies. There are a number of CDR types, however, and the effectiveness of facilitation efforts will require sensitivity to that diversity. This article presents a method characterizing a spectrum of CDR designed to inform facilitation efforts that relies on bibliometric techniques and citation data. We illustrate its use by the Toolbox Project, an ongoing effort …Read more
  •  60
    Action, Ethics and Responsibility: Topics in Contemporary Philosophy, Vol. 7 (edited book)
    with J. Campbell and H. Silverstein
    MIT Press. forthcoming.
    Overview Most philosophical explorations of responsibility discuss the topic solely in terms of metaphysics and the "free will" problem. By contrast, these essays by leading philosophers view responsibility from a variety of perspectives—metaphysics, ethics, action theory, and the philosophy of law. After a broad, framing introduction by the volume's editors, the contributors consider such subjects as responsibility as it relates to the "free will" problem; the relation between responsibility an…Read more
  • The Toolbox Dialogue Initiative: The Power of Cross-Disciplinary Practice (edited book)
    with Graham Hubbs and Steven Hecht Orzack
    CRC Press. 2020.
    Cross-disciplinary scientific collaboration is emerging as standard operating procedure for many scholarly research enterprises. And yet, the skill set needed for effective collaboration is neither taught nor mentored. The goal of the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative is to facilitate cross-disciplinary collaboration. This book, inspired by this initiative, presents dialogue-based methods designed to increase mutual understanding among collaborators so as to enhance the quality and productivity of cro…Read more
  •  9
    Cross-disciplinary research as a platform for philosophical research
    Journal of the American Philosophical Association 2 (2): 344-363. 2016.
    It is argued that core areas of philosophy can benefit from reflection on cross-disciplinary research (CDR). We start by giving a brief account of CDR, describing its variability and some of the ways in which philosophers can interact with it. We then provide an argument in principle for the conclusion that CDR is philosophically fecund, arguing that since CDR highlights fundamental differences among disciplinary research worldviews, it can be used to motivate new philosophical problems and supp…Read more
  •  30
    Reference and Referring: Topics in Contemporary Philosophy, Volume 10 (edited book)
    with Bill Kabasenche and Matthew Slater
    MIT Press. 2012.
    These fifteen original essays address the core semantic concepts of reference and referring from both philosophical and linguistic perspectives. After an introductory essay that casts current trends in reference and referring in terms of an ongoing dialogue between Fregean and Russellian approaches, the book addresses specific topics, balancing breadth of coverage with thematic unity. The contributors, all leading or emerging scholars, address trenchant neo-Fregean challenges to the direct refer…Read more
  •  10
    Coupled Ethical-Epistemic Analysis as a Tool for Environmental Science
    Ethics, Policy and Environment 22 (3): 267-286. 2019.
    This paper presents a new model for how to jointly analyze the ethical and evidentiary dimensions of environmental science cases, with an eye toward making science more participatory and publically...
  •  33
    This paper contributes to the underdeveloped field of experimental philosophy of science. We examine variability in the philosophical views of scientists. Using data from Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, we analyze scientists’ responses to prompts on philosophical issues (methodology, confirmation, values, reality, reductionism, and motivation for scientific research) to assess variance in the philosophical views of physical scientists, life scientists, and social and behavioral scientists. We find …Read more
  • Knowledge and Skepticism (edited book)
    with Joseph Keim Campbell and Harry S. Silverstein
    Mit Press. 2010.
    New essays by leading philosophers explore topics in epistemology, offering both contemporary philosophical analysis and historical perspectives. There are two main questions in epistemology: What is knowledge? And: Do we have any of it? The first question asks after the nature of a concept; the second involves grappling with the skeptic, who believes that no one knows anything. This collection of original essays addresses the themes of knowledge and skepticism, offering both contemporary episte…Read more
  •  6
    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs in these issues, which we refer to as “social ethics.” A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this revi…Read more
  •  9
    Humanistic Values and the Values of Humanities in Interdisciplinary Research
    with Brian Robinson, Stephanie Vasko, Chad Gonnerman, Markus Christen, and Daniel Steel
    Cogent Arts and Humanities 3 1123080. 2016.
    Research integrating the perspectives of different disciplines, or interdisciplinary research, has become increasingly common in academia and is considered important for its ability to address complex questions and problems. This mode of research aims to leverage differences among disciplines in generating a more complex understanding of the research landscape. To interact successfully with other disciplines, researchers must appreciate their differences, and this requires recognizing how the re…Read more
  •  18
    One way to articulate the promise of interdisciplinary research is in terms of the relationship between knowledge and ignorance. Disciplinary research yields deep knowledge of a circumscribed range of issues, but remains ignorant of those issues that stretch outside its purview. Because complex problems such as climate change do not respect disciplinary boundaries, disciplinary research responses to such problems are limited and partial. Interdisciplinary research responses, by contrast, integra…Read more
  •  1
    Reflexivity is a complex phenomenon. In this chapter, we are primarily interested in reflexivity insofar as it is a process of discovering for oneself and one’s audiences the perspectival features (e.g., background assumptions, social positions, and biases) that shape one’s judgments, decisions, and behaviors. So understood, reflexivity isn’t always a good idea. Sometimes thinking can get in the way of doing. (Downhill ski racing springs to mind.) But for some activities, such as action research…Read more
  •  68
    This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists’ attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in whi…Read more
  •  44
    Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training
    with Robert T. Pennock
    Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1): 243-262. 2017.
    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock’s notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations—theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centere…Read more
  •  72
    In this article we argue that philosophy can facilitate improvement in cross-disciplinary science. In particular, we discuss in detail the Toolbox Project, an effort in applied epistemology that deploys philosophical analysis for the purpose of enhancing collaborative, cross-disciplinary scientific research through improvements in cross-disciplinary communication. We begin by sketching the scientific context within which the Toolbox Project operates, a context that features a growing interest in…Read more
  •  1
    Action, Ethics and Responsibility (edited book)
    with Joseph Keim Campbell and Harry Silverstein
    MIT Press. 2010.
  •  39
    Semantics and the Dual‐Aspect use of Definite Descriptions
    Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79 (3). 1998.
    Many philosophers of language have held that a truth‐conditional semantic account can explain the data motivating the distinction between referential and attributive uses of definite descriptions, but I believe this is a mistake. I argue that these data also motivate what I call “dual‐aspect” uses as a distinct but closely related type. After establishing that an account of the distinction must also explain dual‐aspect uses, I argue that the truth‐conditional Semantic Model of the distinction ca…Read more
  •  70
    Causation and Explanation (edited book)
    with Joseph Keim Campbell and Harry S. Silverstein
    Bradford. 2007.
    This collection of original essays on the topics of causation and explanation offers readers a state-of-the-art view of current work in these areas. The book is notable for its interdisciplinary character, and the essays, by distinguished authors and important rising scholars, will be of interest to a wide readership, including philosophers, computer scientists, and economists. Students and scholars alike will find the book valuable for its wide-ranging treatment of two difficult philosophical t…Read more
  •  25
  •  62
    Time and Identity (edited book)
    with Joseph Keim Campbell and Harry S. Silverstein
    Bradford. 2010.
    The concepts of time and identity seem at once unproblematic and frustratingly difficult. Time is an intricate part of our experience -- it would seem that the passage of time is a prerequisite for having any experience at all -- and yet recalcitrant questions about time remain. Is time real? Does time flow? Do past and future moments exist? Philosophers face similarly stubborn questions about identity, particularly about the persistence of identical entities through change. Indeed, questions ab…Read more
  •  31
    In Defense of Common Content
    Philosophical Papers 29 (3): 159-188. 2000.
    Abstract In this essay, I critically discuss a theory of utterance content and de re communication that Anne Bezuidenhout has recently developed in a series of articles. This theory regards the significance of utterances as more pragmatic in nature than allowed by traditional accounts; further, it downplays logical considerations in explaining de re communication, choosing instead to emphasize its psychological character. Included among the implications of this approach is the rejection of what …Read more
  •  223
    Are there natural kinds of things around which our theories cut? The essays in this volume offer reflections by a distinguished group of philosophers on a series of intertwined issues in the metaphysics and epistemology of classification.
  •  35
    Review of Stephen Barker, Renewing Meaning: A Speech-Act Theoretic Approach (review)
    Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (3). 2005.
  •  20
    The Environment: Philosophy, Science, and Ethics (edited book)
    with William P. Kabasenche and Matthew H. Slater
    MIT Press. 2012.
    Philosophical reflections on the environment began with early philosophers' invocation of a cosmology that mixed natural and supernatural phenomena. Today, the central philosophical problem posed by the environment involves not what it can teach us about ourselves and our place in the cosmic order but rather how we can understand its workings in order to make better decisions about our own conduct regarding it. The resulting inquiry spans different areas of contemporary philosophy, many of which…Read more
  •  39
    Situating Semantics: Essays on the Philosophy of John Perry (edited book)
    with Corey Washington
    MIT Press. 2005.
    15 Situating Semantics: A Response John Perry Introduction I am very grateful to Michael O'Rourke and Corey Washington for envisaging and putting together ...
  •  24
    Enhancing Communication & Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research (edited book)
    with Stephen J. Crowley, Sanford D. Eigenbrode, and J. D. Wulfhorst
    SAGE Publications. 2014.
    Enhancing Communication & Collaboration in Interdisciplinary Research, edited by Michael O'Rourke, Stephen Crowley, Sanford D. Eigenbrode, and J. D. Wulfhorst, is a volume of previously unpublished, state-of-the-art chapters on interdisciplinary communication and collaboration written by leading figures and promising junior scholars in the world of interdisciplinary research, education, and administration. Designed to inform both teaching and research, this innovative book covers the spectrum o…Read more