•  88
    Toleration and Some Related Concepts in Kant
    Kantian Review 25 (2): 167-192. 2020.
    In this article we examine Kant’s understanding of toleration by including a study of all instances in which he directly uses the language of toleration and related concepts. We use this study to resolve several key areas of interpretative dispute concerning Kant’s views on toleration. We argue that Kant offers a nuanced and largely unappreciated approach to thinking about toleration, and related concepts, across three normative spheres: the political, the interpersonal and the personal. We exam…Read more
  •  42
    Book review of "The Evil Within: Why we need Moral Philosophy", by Diane Jeske
  •  168
    Kant and the demandingness of the virtue of beneficence
    European Journal of Philosophy 27 (3): 625-642. 2019.
    We discuss Kant’s conception of beneficence against the background of the overdemandingness debate. We argue that Kant’s conception of beneficence constitutes a sweet spot between overdemandingess and undemandingess. To this end we defend four key claims that together constitute a novel interpretation of Kant’s account of beneficence: 1) for the same reason that we are obligated to be beneficent to others we are permitted to be beneficent to ourselves; 2) we can prioritise our own ends; 3) it is…Read more
  •  132
    Measuring morality in videogames research
    with Malcolm Ryan, Stephanie Howarth, and Dan Staines
    Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1): 55-68. 2020.
    There has been a recent surge of research interest in videogames of moral engagement for entertainment, advocacy and education. We have seen a wealth of analysis and several theoretical models proposed, but experimental evaluation has been scarce. One of the difficulties lies in the measurement of moral engagement. How do we meaningfully measure whether players are engaging with and affected by the moral choices in the games they play? In this paper, we survey the various standard psychometric i…Read more
  •  165
    When AI meets PC: exploring the implications of workplace social robots and a human-robot psychological contract
    with Sarah Bankins
    European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology 2019. 2019.
    The psychological contract refers to the implicit and subjective beliefs regarding a reciprocal exchange agreement, predominantly examined between employees and employers. While contemporary contract research is investigating a wider range of exchanges employees may hold, such as with team members and clients, it remains silent on a rapidly emerging form of workplace relationship: employees’ increasing engagement with technically, socially, and emotionally sophisticated forms of artificially int…Read more
  •  135
    All morally wrong actions deserve some form of moral condemnation. But the degree of that condemnation is not the same in all cases. Some wrongs are so morally extreme that they seem to belong to a different category because they deserve our very strongest form of moral condemnation. For example, telling a white lie to make a friend feel better might be morally wrong, but intuitively such an act is in a different moral category to the sadistic, brutal, and violent rape and torture of a child. Th…Read more
  •  77
    Book review of 'Means, Ends, and Persons: The Meaning and Psychological Dimensions of Kant's Humanity Formula, by Robert Audi, OUP'.
  •  177
    Focus, Sensitivity, Judgement, Action: Four Lenses for Designing Morally Engaging Games
    with Malcolm Ryan and Dan Staines
    Transactions of the Digital Games Research Association 2 (3): 143-173. 2017.
    Historically the focus of moral decision-making in games has been narrow, mostly confined to challenges of moral judgement (deciding right and wrong). In this paper, we look to moral psychology to get a broader view of the skills involved in ethical behaviour and how these skills can be employed in games. Following the Four Component Model of Rest and colleagues, we identify four “lenses” – perspectives for considering moral gameplay in terms of focus, sensitivity, judgement and action – and des…Read more
  •  132
    Four Lenses for Designing Morally Engaging Games
    with Malcolm Ryan and Dan Staines
    Proceedings of 1st International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG. 2016.
    Historically the focus of moral decision-making in games has been narrow, mostly confined to challenges of moral judgement (deciding right and wrong). In this paper, we look to moral psychology to get a broader view of the skills involved in ethical behaviour and how they may be employed in games. Following the Four Component Model of Rest and colleagues, we identify four “lenses” – perspectives for considering moral gameplay in terms of focus, sensitivity, judgement and action – and describe th…Read more
  •  88
    Playing Around With Morality: Introducing the Special Issue on “Morality Play”
    with Malcolm Ryan and Rowan Tulloch
    Games and Culture 14 (4). 2019.
    This special issue of Games and Culture focuses on the intersection between video games and ethics. This introduction briefly sets out the key research questions in the research field and identifies trends in the articles included in this special issue
  •  50
    Moral Law
    In Michael Gibbons (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Political Thought, . pp. 2438-2455. 2015.
    What is the moral law and what role does it and should it play in political theory and political practice? In this entry we will try to answer these important questions by first examining what the moral law is, before investigating the different ways in which the relationship between morality and politics can be conceptualized
  •  107
    Morality Play: A Model for Developing Games of Moral Expertise
    with Dan Staines and Malcolm Ryan
    Games and Culture 14 (4): 410-429. 2019.
    According to cognitive psychologists, moral decision-making is a dual-process phenomenon involving two types of cognitive processes: explicit reasoning and implicit intuition. Moral development involves training and integrating both types of cognitive processes through a mix of instruction, practice, and reflection. Serious games are an ideal platform for this kind of moral training, as they provide safe spaces for exploring difficult moral problems and practicing the skills necessary to resolve…Read more
  •  96
    Kant on Education and evil—Perfecting human beings with an innate propensity to radical evil
    with Klas Roth
    Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13): 1304-1307. 2018.
    Kant begins his Lectures on Pedagogy by stating, “[t]he human being is the only creature that must be educated” (Kant, 2007, 9:441), and he argues that it is through education that we can transform our initial “animal nature into human nature” (ibid. 2007, 9:441). Kant understands education as involving an ordered process of care, discipline, instruction and formation through enculturating, civilizing and moralizing (Formosa 2011). Further, Kant envisages that we should pursue as a species the “…Read more
  •  400
    Moral responsibility for banal evil
    Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (4). 2006.
    It has often been argued that Hannah Arendt ‘let off’ Eichmann through her concept of the banality of evil. In this paper I argue, through revisiting and modifying the concept of the banality of evil, that we can reject such criticism. That is, by judging that a perpetrator, like Eichmann, commits evil banally in no way undermines the grounds for holding them to be responsible for their actions, but it does help us to understand why such perpetrators act as they do and to teach us how we might p…Read more
  •  68
    Politics and Teleology in Kant (edited book)
    with Avery Goldman and Tatiana Patrone
    University of Wales Press. 2014.
    The fourteen essays in this volume, by leading scholars in the field, explore the relationship between teleology and politics in Kant’s corpus. Among the topics discussed are Kant’s normative political theory and legal philosophy; his cosmopolitanism and views on international relations; his theory of history; his theory of natural teleology; and the broader relationship between morality, history, nature, and politics. _Politics and Teleology in Kant_ will be of interest to a wide audience, incl…Read more
  •  66
    Evil, virtue, and education in Kant
    Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (13): 1325-1334. 2019.
    For Kant, we cannot understand how to approach moral education without confronting the radical evil of humanity. But if we start out, as Kant thinks we do, from a morally corrupt state, how...
  •  129
    Review of 'Evil and Moral Psychology, written by Peter Brian Barry' (review)
    Journal of Moral Philosophy 13 (4): 495-497. 2016.
    Review of 'Evil and Moral Psychology, written by Peter Brian Barry'
  •  335
    Papers, Please and the systemic approach to engaging ethical expertise in videogames
    with Ryan Malcolm and Staines Dan
    Ethics and Information Technology 18 (3): 211-225. 2016.
    Papers, Please, by Lucas Pope (2013), explores the story of a customs inspector in the fictional political regime of Arstotzka. In this paper we explore the stories, systems and moral themes of Papers, Please in order to illustrate the systemic approach to designing videogames for moral engagement. Next, drawing on the Four Component model of ethical expertise from moral psychology, we contrast this systemic approach with the more common scripted approach. We conclude by demonstrating the differ…Read more
  •  227
    The Ends of politics : Kant on sovereignty, civil disobedience and cosmopolitanism
    In Paul Formosa, Tatiana Patrone & Avery Goldman (eds.), Politics and Teleology in Kant, University of Wales Press. pp. 37-58. 2014.
    A focus on the presence of unjustified coercion is one of the central normative concerns of Kant’s entire practical philosophy, from the ethical to the cosmopolitical. This focus is intimately interconnected with Kant’s account of sovereignty, since only the sovereign can justifiably coerce others unconditionally. For Kant, the sovereign is she who has the rightful authority to legislate laws and who is subject only to the laws that she gives herself. In the moral realm (or kingdom) of ends, eac…Read more
  •  170
    Kantian Ethics, Dignity and Perfection
    Cambridge University Press. 2017.
    In this volume Paul Formosa sets out a novel approach to Kantian ethics as an ethics of dignity by focusing on the Formula of Humanity as a normative principle distinct from the Formula of Universal Law. By situating the Kantian conception of dignity within the wider literature on dignity, he develops an important distinction between status dignity, which all rational agents have, and achievement dignity, which all rational agents should aspire to. He then explores constructivist and realist vie…Read more
  •  142
    Introduction: The Connection between Politics and Teleology in Kant
    with Formosa Paul, Goldman Avery, and Patrone Tatiana
    In Paul Formosa, Avery Goldman & Tatiana Patrone (eds.), Politics and Teleology in Kant, University of Wales Press. pp. 1-18. 2014.
    Kant develops his political philosophy in the context of a teleological conception of both nature and human history. For Kant, political thought must be undertaken in the context of a progressive historical view of humanity’s place in nature. For this reason Kant would strongly agree with John Rawls’s claim that one of the key roles that political philosophy plays in a society’s political culture is that of ‘probing the limits of practicable political possibility. In this role, we view political…Read more
  •  47
    Book review : "Kant's anatomy of evil" (review)
    Kantian Review 16 (2): 150-156. 2011.
    Book review of Sharon Anderson-Gold, and Pablo Muchnik, "Kant's Anatomy of Evil", Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, Pp 251, ISBN 9780521514323.
  •  79
    An apathetic life is not the sort of life that most of us would want for ourselves or believe that we have a duty to strive for. And yet Kant argues that we have a duty of apathy, a duty to strive to be without affects (Affecten) and passions (Leidenschaften). But is Kant’s claim that there is a duty of apathy really as problematic as it sounds? In arguing that it is not, this paper investigates in detail in Kant’s accounts of affects and passions and defends Kant’s argument that we have a duty …Read more
  •  211
    Nussbaum, Kant, and the Capabilities Approach to Dignity
    with Catriona Mackenzie
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (5): 875-892. 2014.
    The concept of dignity plays a foundational role in the more recent versions of Martha Nussbaum’s capabilities theory. However, despite its centrality to her theory, Nussbaum’s conception of dignity remains under-theorised. In this paper we critically examine the role that dignity plays in Nussbaum’s theory by, first, developing an account of the concept of dignity and introducing a distinction between two types of dignity, status dignity and achievement dignity. Next, drawing on this account, w…Read more
  •  702
    Is Kant a Moral Constructivist or a Moral Realist?
    European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2): 170-196. 2013.
    The dominant interpretation of Kant as a moral constructivist has recently come under sustained philosophical attack by those defending a moral realist reading of Kant. In light of this, should we read Kant as endorsing moral constructivism or moral realism? In answering this question we encounter disagreement in regard to two key independence claims. First, the independence of the value of persons from the moral law (an independence that is rejected) and second, the independence of the content …Read more
  •  144
    Thinking, Willing, and Judging
    Crossroads 4 (1): 53-64. 2009.
    In this paper I examine Max Deutscher’s recent accounts of thinking, willing and judging, derived from his reading of Hannah Arendt’s 'The Life of the Mind', as set out in his book 'Judgment After Arendt'. Against Deutscher I argue that thinking does not presuppose thoughtfulness, that being willing is compatible with willing reluctantly, and that actor and spectator judgments are distinct types of judgments.
  •  262
    The role of vulnerability in Kantian ethics
    In Catriona Mackenzie, Wendy Rogers & Susan Dodds (eds.), Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy, Oxford University Press. pp. 88-109. 2014.
    Does the fact that humans are vulnerable, needy and dependent beings play an important role in Kantian ethics? It is sometimes claimed that it cannot and does not. I argue that it can and does. I distinguish between broad (all persons are vulnerable) and narrow (only some persons are vulnerable) senses of vulnerability, and explain the role of vulnerability in both senses in Kantian ethics. The basis of this argument is to show that the core normative focus of Kantian ethics is on the dignity th…Read more
  •  162
    Kant identifies the “highest moral-physical good” as that combination of “good living” and “true humanity” which best harmonises in a “good meal in good company”. Why does Kant privilege the dinner party in this way? By examining Kant’s accounts of enlightenment, cosmopolitanism, love and respect, and gratitude and friendship, the answer to this question becomes clear. Kant’s moral ideal is that of an enlightened and just cosmopolitan human being who feels and acts with respect and love for all …Read more
  •  303
    From Discipline and Autonomy: Kant's Theory of Moral Development
    In Klas Roth & Chris W. Surprenant (eds.), Kant and Education: Interpretations and Commentary, Routledge. pp. 163--176. 2011.
    In this paper I argue that Kant develops, in a number of texts, a detailed three stage theory of moral development which resembles the contemporary accounts of moral development defended by Lawrence Kohlberg and John Rawls. The first stage in this process is that of physical education and disciplining, followed by cultivating and civilising, with a third and final stage of moralising. The outcome of this process of moral development is a fully autonomous person. However, Kant’s account of moral …Read more