APA Western Division
Eugene, Oregon, United States of America
Areas of Specialization
Value Theory
Other Academic Areas
PhilPapers Editorships
Feminist Aesthetics
  •  452
    Painting the Difference: Sex and Spectator in Modern Art
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (2): 244-246. 2007.
    British art historian Charles Harrison presumes the existence of a patriarchal world with power in the hands of men who dominate the representation of women and femininity. He applauds the ground-breaking work of feminist theorists who have questioned this imbalance of power since the 1970s. He stops short, however, of accepting their claims that all women have been represented by male artists as images of “utter passivity” (p. 4), routinely reduced by the male gaze to the status of exploited s…Read more
  •  7
    Definitions of Art (review)
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (2): 492-494. 1994.
  • Pittura: A Gendered Template for Painting
    In Noel Carroll & Jonathan Gilmore (eds.), Routledge Companion to the Philosophies of Painting and Sculpture, Routledge. forthcoming.
    Why is painting unique among the visual arts? And why in the late sixteenth century did Cesare Ripa in his landmark Iconologia choose to create a distinctly female template for the act of painting? Moreover, why would a woman ever choose to paint herself as La Pittura (The Allegory of Painting)? This essay offers the thoughts of a painter-philosopher on the historic significance of the choice of topic, iconography, and gender of the most recognized allegory of Painting, namely the original textu…Read more
  •  76
    Perfect Me: Beauty as an Ethical Ideal offers a unique approach to an old topic, that of human beauty, written by an ethicist specializing in global ethics who considers herself "an applied philosopher" (14). It seems to be written primarily for ethicists and not--of preferred interest to this reviewer--for aestheticians, that is, those who routinely write about the value of the complex notion of beauty and its many permutations that involve ethics. . . . Perfect Me: Beauty as an Ethical Ideal i…Read more
  •  31
    Revising the Aesthetic-Nonaesthetic Distinction: The Aesthetic Value of Activist Art
    In Peggy Zeglin Brand & Carolyn Korsmeyer (eds.), Feminism and Tradition in Aesthetics, The Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 245-272. 1995.
    This essay explores the role that the aesthetic-nonaesthetic distinction plays in assessing activist art by women and artists of color. First, I shall review one traditional line of philosophical thought and show how it serves as the foundation for three types of reasons typically given for artworks reputed to lack aesthetic value. I develop two of the three reasons by examining recent writings opposed to the aesthetic value of activist art by well-known art critic Donald Kuspit, pointing out hi…Read more
  •  1
    Why is painting unique among the visual arts? And why in the late sixteenth century did Cesare Ripa in his landmark Iconologia choose to create a distinctly female template for the act of painting? Moreover, why would a woman ever choose to paint herself as La Pittura (The Allegory of Painting)? This essay offers the thoughts of a painter-philosopher on the historic significance of the choice of topic, iconography, and gender of the most recognized allegory of Painting, namely the original textu…Read more
  •  2
    Not everyone faces “modern” death equally, whether in Oran or today’s world. In this chapter, I argue that the “difficulty” in Oran of “modern death” as described by Camus is still with us today in that Americans neither faced death together in any form of solidarity under the Trump administration nor faced death individually in any traditional “decent” manner (as proposed by the character Tarrou), that is, comforted by family or friends. One reason is overwhelming fear of death—what neuroscient…Read more
  •  70
    The Introduction provides a historical and literary context for the examination of Albert Camus’s 1947 fictional novel, The Plague, to suggest its relevance to our own lived experiences of the 2021 Covid-19 pandemic that brought the routines and expectations of our normal, daily lives to an unprecedented halt. Details of Camus’s life and work inform our reading of the narrative that give rise to multiple interpretations as well as intriguing questions of scholarly inquiry: How realistic are the …Read more
  •  61
    Camus's The Plague: Philosophical Perspectives (edited book)
    Oxford University Press. 2023.
    _La Peste_, originally published in 1947 by the Nobel Prize-winning writer Albert Camus, chronicles the progression of deadly bubonic plague as it spreads through the quarantined Algerian city of Oran. While most discussions of fictional examples within aesthetics are either historical or hypothetical, Camus offers an example of "pestilence fiction." Camus chose fiction to convey facts--about plagues in the past, his own bout with tuberculosis at age seventeen, living under quarantine away from …Read more
  •  271
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 48 (4): 277-280. 1990.
    This is the co-authored--with Carolyn Korsmeyer--Introduction to the first published feminist scholarship in The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism (Volume 48, Number 4, Fall 1990). Contributors included Hilde Hein, Paul Mattick, Jr., Timothy Gould, Joanne B. Waugh, Joseph Margolis, Mary Devereaux, Noel Carroll, Flo Leibowitz, Anita Silvers, Elizabeth Ann Dobie, Renee Cox, and Ellen Handler Spitz. All essays were subsequently published in an expanded book version entitled, Feminism and Trad…Read more
  •  219
    The Beauty of the Game
    with Myles Brand
    In Jerry Walls (ed.), Basketball and Philosophy, The University Press of Kentucky. pp. 94-103. 2007.
    Imagine a deep philosophical conversation about a beautiful shot by a college player in a Final Four basketball game!
  •  73
    This paper explores the role of 1980s to early 1990s feminist theory of art within the analytic philosophical tradition of aesthetics starting with a critique of the noncontextual criticism of aesthetics of Jerome Stolnitz and Monroe Beardsley contrasted with contextual feminist theory, informed by contextual theories of Arthur Danto, George Dickie and Marcia Eaton, and concluding that knowledge of external, contextual data is necessarily required to assess a work of art that has been deemed a w…Read more
  •  65
    Feminism and Aesthetics in Contemporary American Art
    American Studies 15 133-146. 1997.
    What is feminist art? Can an ordinary viewer experience it in a neutral, detached, and objective way? These two questions are the focus of this essay which attempts to bridge a gap between philosophical aesthetics and feminist theorizing about women's art. The first question is purely historical, easily answered by means of a brief overview of the past twenty-five years of feminist art in America. The second question raises philosophical issues squarely within the realm of aesthetics, contingen…Read more
  •  58
    I consider what draws us to perceiving beautiful bodies in art and athletics--repeatedly and over time--that is informed by viewers' changing perceptions derived from recent publications in fashion and sport, the philosophy of sport, feminist film theory and aesthetics under the ever-expanding umbrella of somaesthetics.
  •  62
    Feminist Criticism: On Disturbatory Art and Beauty
    In Jonathan Gilmore & Lydia Goehr (eds.), A Companion to Arthur C. Danto, Wiley-blackwell. pp. 344-353. 2022.
    Arthur C. Danto, philosopher and art critic for The Nation from 1984-2009, offered interpretations of artworks by a wide array of artists, including Eva Hesse, Judy Chicago, and Cindy Sherman, whose "disturbatory" works were either ignored or denounced by mainstream critics at the time. Danto's championing of feminist art was deliberate and delightful; he openly endorsed the Guerilla Girls! His feminist art critical writings ultimately shaped the early development of what has come to be known as…Read more
  •  198
    VIRTUAL BEAUTY: Orlan and Morimura
    L and B (Lier En Boog) 16 92-104. 2001.
    This essay offers some thoughts on the editors' (Annette w. Balkema and Henk Slager) project "Exploding Aesthetics" with the goal of extending aesthetics based on a specific type of artistic output. Both artists--Orlan and Morimura--have already expanded the normal parameters of artistic inquiry and the resulting critical discourse. As an aesthetician, I merely offer some elaboration and philosophical backdrop to their creative enterprise. They constitute the paradigm of the avant-garde artist e…Read more
  •  91
    ORLAN Revisited: DIsembodied Virtual Hybrid Beauty
    In Peg Zeglin Brand (ed.), Beauty Unlimited. pp. 306-340. 2012.
    This essay offers an update on the author's thoughts on the French feminist performance artist ORLAN, analyzing her visual representations as a new category of feminist visual art, namely, virtual hybrid beauty.
  •  74
    Bound to Beauty: An Interview with Orlan
    In Peg Zeglin Brand (ed.), Beauty Matters. pp. 289-313. 2000.
    The feminist performance art of the controversial French artist named Orlan is discussed in this interview with the artist.
  •  131
    Beauty as Pride: A Function of Agency
    APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Medicine 2 (10): 5-9. 2011.
    This paper (presented along with others at an APA session with the late Dr. Anita Silvers commenting) explores and engages a mode of defiant challenges to the traditional, able-bodied standard of female beauty evidenced throughout the history of art as portrayed by the controversial photographer, Joel-Peter Witkin. Witkin's images of Ann Millett-Gallant, author of the book, The Disabled Body in Contemporary Art, "visualize disability" as they explore issues in agency, otherness, and the medical …Read more
  •  219
    Misleading Aesthetic Norms of Beauty: Perceptual Sexism in Elite Women's Sports
    In Sherri Irvin (ed.), Body Aesthetics, Oxford University Press. pp. 192-221. 2016.
    This essay is about the history of challenges that women in elite sports have faced with respect to their gender identity within a society that perpetuates misleading aesthetic norms of beauty; it is a history fraught with controversy and injustice. . . . We recommend both the acknowledgment within the realm of elite sport of perceptual sexism based on misleading aesthetic norms of beauty, and a way of correcting such erroneous categorization that allows athletes the autonomy and agency to choo…Read more
  •  119
    Glaring omissions in traditional theories of art
    The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 4 177-186. 1999.
    I investigate the role of feminist theorizing in relation to traditionally-based aesthetics. Feminist artworks have arisen within the context of a patriarchal Artworld dominated for thousands of years by male artists, critics, theorists, and philosophers. I look at the history of that context as it impacts philosophical theorizing by pinpointing the narrow range of the paradigms used in defining “art.” I test the plausibility of Danto’s After the End of Art vision of a post-historical, pluralist…Read more
  •  117
    The Sense of Art (review)
    The Personalist Forum 6 (1): 89-91. 1990.
    Review of 1989 text by Ralph A. Smith, noted art education scholar during the era of DBAE (Discipline Based Art Education), that criticizes the author's agenda to remedy the ills of the state of arts education, arts' secondary status to the sciences, pluralism, and popular ideologies of of contemporary culture as an agenda that is (below the surface) clearly conservative, male-centered, Eurocentric and elitist. My conclusion: "Educators, beware."
  •  93
    Review of Feminism and Contemporary Art: The Revolutionary Power of Women's Laughter and The Emptiness of the Image: Psychoanalysis and Sexual Differences (review)
    with Jo Anna Isaak and Parveen Adams
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (3): 299. 1998.
    Both books published in 1996 explore the role that gender plays in the psychology of art (dealing with both making and viewing), complicating current philosophical distinctions between the aesthetic and the cognitive, and providing new insights into basic topics in the history and psychology of perception, representation, and disinterestedness.
  •  131
    Review of Out of Order, Out of Sight (review)
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 56 (4): 405-406. 1998.
    There has been an important artist in our midst. Her work is about gender, race, and the internal structures of the artworld, and it predated the current popularity of those topics in theoretical circles by three decades.... Piper's volumes serve two functions. Volume I, Selected writings in Meta-Art, 1968-1992, provides an intimate history of the development of her own creative art making, while Volume 2, Selected writings in Art Criticism, 1967-1992, chronicles her more public responses to art…Read more
  •  94
    Disinterestedness and Political Art
    In Carolyn Korsmeyer (ed.), Aesthetics: The Big Questions, Blackwell. pp. 155-171. 1998.
    Can an ordinary viewer ever experience art---particularly politically charged, socially relevant art--in a neutral, detached, and objective way? The familiar philosophical notion of disinterestedness has its roots in eighteenth-century theories of taste and was refined throughout the twentieth century. In contrast, many contemporary theorists have argued for what I call an "interested approach" in order to expand beyond the traditional emphasis on neutrality and universality. Each group, in effe…Read more
  •  524
    Lord, Lewis, and the Institutional Theory of Art
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 40 (3): 309-314. 1981.
    In "Convention and Dickie's Institutional Theory" (British Journal of Aesthetics 1980), Catherine Lord maintains the following thesis: (L) If a work of art is defined as institutional and conventional, then the definition precludes the freedom and creativity associated with art. Lord also maintains that the antecedent of this conditional is false. In this note, I argue that (i) certain confusions and assumptions prevent Lord from showing the antecedent is false, and (ii) even if the antecedent…Read more
  •  294
    Surface Interpretation: Reply to Leddy
    with Peg Zeglin Brand and Myles Brand
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (4): 463-465. 1999.
    In our paper "Surface and Deep Interpretation," we sought to provide detail and texture to Arthur Danto's views on interpretation, thereby explicating and defending them (as published in Mark Rollins, ed., Danto and His Critics (Blackwell, originally published 1993; second edition 2012). Leddy objects to our views; in the end, Danto's view, given our explication of it, remains tenable.
  •  78
    Symposium: Beauty Matters
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (1): 1-10. 1999.
    The "Introduction" to "Symposium: Beauty Matters" in the Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Winter 1999), pages 1-10, is presented here. Abstract: The point of this symposium is to locate one trajectory of the new wave of discussions about beauty beyond the customary confines of analytic aesthetics and to situate it at the intersection of aesthetics, ethics, social-political philosophy, and cultural criticism. The three essays that follow, authored by Marcia Muelder Eaton,…Read more