• Construction and evaluation of cDNA libraries for large-scale expressed sequence tag sequencing in wheat
    with D. Zhang, D. W. Choi, S. Wanamaker, R. D. Fenton, A. Chin, M. Malatrasi, Y. Turuspekov, H. Walia, E. D. Akhunov, P. Kianian, C. Otto, K. Simons, K. R. Deal, V. Echenique, B. Stamova, K. Ross, G. E. Butler, L. Strader, S. D. Verhey, S. Altenbach, K. Kothari, C. Tanaka, M. M. Shah, D. Laudencia-Chingcuanco, P. Han, R. E. Miller, C. C. Crossman, S. Chao, G. R. Lazo, N. Klueva, J. P. Gustafson, S. F. Kianian, J. Dubcovsky, M. K. Walker-Simmons, K. S. Gill, J. Dvořák, O. D. Anderson, M. E. Sorrells, P. E. McGuire, C. O. Qualset, H. T. Nguyen, and T. J. Close
    A total of 37 original cDNA libraries and 9 derivative libraries enriched for rare sequences were produced from Chinese Spring wheat, five other hexaploid wheat genotypes, tetraploid durum wheat, diploid wheat, and two other diploid members of the grass tribe Triticeae. The emphasis in the choice of plant materials for library construction was reproductive development subjected to environmental factors that ultimately affect grain quality and yield, but roots and other tissues were also included…Read more
  •  100
    Internal Reasons and the Conditional Fallacy
    Philosophical Quarterly 49 (194): 53-72. 1999.
  • Kant's Conception Of Virtue
    Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 5. 1997.
  •  33
    Minding one's manners: Revisiting moral explanations
    Philosophical Studies 90 (2): 181-203. 1998.
  • Kant's Theory of Moral Worth
    Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1993.
    The Kantian theory of moral worth, because it emphasizes the role of reason, has been universally castigated for being disaffecting, impersonal and alienating. My thesis is that, to the contrary, it is through its emphasis on reason that the Kantian view is able to give a full-blooded place to our sentiments, partial ties and projects in morality. ;My first task is to show how standard interpretations of Kant's theory misrepresent his true concerns. Typically, his views are treated as nothing mo…Read more
  •  224
    Virtue and right
    Ethics 113 (4): 810-834. 2003.
  •  34
    Kantian Ethics Almost Without Apology
    Philosophical Review 106 (4): 594-595. 1997.
    Alas, you were at a Kant conference—or many philosophers’ idea of one—and if you are shocked, perhaps you are not a Kantian. For this scenario illustrates two fundamental criticisms of Kant’s vision of morality as “duty”: It is outrageous to hold that even for the hero “all the good he can ever perform still is merely duty”. And those who, like these parents, are moved to every morally significant action by a sense of duty are, far from exemplary, morally repugnant. Surely many actions are good …Read more
  •  44
    Self-Improvement: An Essay in Kantian Ethics
    Oxford University Press. 2011.
    Is there any moral obligation to improve oneself, to foster and develop various capacities in oneself? From a broadly Kantian point of view, Self-Improvement defends the view that there is such an obligation and that it is an obligation that each person owes to him or herself. The defence addresses a range of arguments philosophers have mobilized against this idea, including the argument that it is impossible to owe anything to yourself, and the view that an obligation to improve onself is overl…Read more
  •  88
    Expressing a Good Will: Kant on the Motive of Duty
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (2): 147-168. 1996.
    If any action is to be morally good it is not enough that it should conform to the moral law-it must also be done for the sake of the moral law: where this is not so, the conformity is only too contingent and precarious, since the nonmoral ground at work will now and then produce actions which accord with the law, but very often actions which transgress it.
  •  49
    Weakness Incorporated
    History of Philosophy Quarterly 15 (3). 1998.
    Kant held that “an incentive can determine the will [Willkür] to action only so far as the individual has incorporated it into his maxim”, a view dubbed the “Incorporation Thesis” by Henry Allison (hereafter, “IT”). Although many see IT as basic to Kant’s views on agency, it also seems irreconcilable with the possibility of a kind of weakness, the kind exhibited by a person who acts on incentives that run contrary to principles she holds dear. The problem is this: According to IT, if an incentiv…Read more
  •  25
    Kantian ethics can at times appear to defend the position that there is a unique sort of value that plays a foundational role in morality. For instance, Kant's most well known work in ethics, the Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, begins by trying to establish that a good will is good without qualification' and then ends with a first statement of the fundamental principle that divides right from wrong, the Categorical Imperative.1 This presentation can make it seems as if Kant believes the …Read more
  •  42
    The moral law as causal law
    In Jens Timmermann (ed.), Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: A Critical Guide, Cambridge University Press. 2009.
    Much recent work on Kant's argument that the Categorical Imperative is the fundamental principle of morality has focused on the gap in that argument between the conclusion that rational agents conform to laws that apply to every rational agent, and the requirement contained in the Universal Law of Nature formula.1 While it seems plausible – even trivial– that a rational agent, insofar as she is a rational agent, conforms to whatever laws there are that are valid for all rational agents, there do…Read more
  •  76
    The first section of the Groundwork begins “It is impossible to imagine anything at all in the world, or even beyond it, that can be called good without qualification— except a good will.”1 Kant’s explanation and defense of this claim is followed by an explanation and defense of another related claim, that only actions performed out of duty have moral worth. He explains that actions performed out of duty are those done from respect for the moral law, and then culminates the first section with a …Read more
  •  243
    Kant's conception of Merit
    Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 77 310. 1996.
    It is standard to attribute to Kant the view that actions from motives other than duty deserve no positive moral evaluation. I argue that the standard view is mistaken. Kant's account of merit in the Metaphysics of Morals shows that he believes actions not performed from duty can be meritorious. Moreover, the grounds for attributing merit to an action are different from those for attributing moral worth to it. This is significant because it shows both that his views are reasonably consistent wit…Read more
  •  223
    Kant's moral philosophy
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008.
    Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) argued that moral requirements are based on a standard of rationality he dubbed the “Categorical Imperative” (CI). Immorality thus involves a violation of the CI and is thereby irrational. Other philosophers, such as Locke and Hobbes, had also argued that moral requirements are based on standards of rationality. However, these standards were either desirebased instrumental principles of rationality or based on sui generis rational intuitions. Kant agreed with many of hi…Read more