•  268
    We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART . As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed to rethink maternal bodies through the lens of feminist embodiment. Feminist embodied maternity, as we call it, stresses the particularity of experience through subjective embodiment. A feminist embodied maternit…Read more
  •  134
    Political solidarity and violent resistance
    Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1). 2007.
    This article examines the particular moral obligations of solidarity focusing on the solidary commitment against injustice or oppression. I argue that political solidarity entails three relationships—to other participants in action, to a cause or goal, and to those outside the unity of political solidarity. These relationships inform certain obligations. Activism is one of those obligations and I argue that violent activism is incompatible with the other relations and duties of solidarity. Ac…Read more
  •  123
    Human Rights, Radical Feminism, and Rape in War
    Social Philosophy Today 21 207-224. 2005.
    This paper looks at some prominent discussions of rape in war as a violation of human rights within Radical Feminism. I begin with a brief overview of United Nations declarations and actions on the subject of rape in war. I then look at some radical feminist accounts of rape in war as a violation of human rights with particular emphasis on the discussions of Susan Brownmiller and Catharine MacKinnon. I conclude the paper with a critical analysis of these radical feminist accounts and show how ou…Read more
  •  106
    Political Solidarity and Violent Resistance
    Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (1): 38-52. 2007.
    This article examines the particular moral obligations of solidarity focusing on the solidary commitment against injustice or oppression. I argue that political solidarity entails three relationships—to other participants in action, to a cause or goal, and to those outside the unity of political solidarity. These relationships inform certain obligations. Activism is one of those obligations and I argue that violent activism is incompatible with the other relations and duties of solidarity. Ac…Read more
  •  105
    : We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies). As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed to rethink maternal bodies through the lens of feminist embodiment. Feminist embodied maternity, as we call it, stresses the particularity of experience through subjective em…Read more
  •  102
    Seeking Solidarity
    Philosophy Compass 10 (10): 725-735. 2015.
    Using relations of solidarity in global contexts, this article explores some of the debates about what constitutes solidarity. Three primary forms of solidarity are discussed, with particular attention to the different nature of the solidaristic relations and their moral obligations
  •  102
    Civil Disobedience in the Social Theory of Thomas Aquinas
    The Thomist 60 (3): 449-462. 1996.
    In this article I define civil disobedience and classify it into four forms based on motive and extent of dissent. I then present Thomas Aquinas's account for justified civil disobedience. After first determining how a law or system of laws is unjust, the duty (virtue) of obedience to just and unjust laws is discussed. Finally, I argue that of the four possible forms of civil disobedience, Aquinas's natural Law Theory only clearly allows the fourth, i.e., altruistic disobedience of an unjust sys…Read more
  •  89
    Just War Theory, Crimes of War, and War Rape
    International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1): 143-157. 2006.
    Recent decades have witnessed rape and sexual violence used on such a massive scale and often in a widespread and systematic program that the international community has had to recognize that rape and sexual violence are not just war crimes but might be crimes against humanity or even genocide. I suggest that just war theory, while limited in its applicability to mass rape, might nevertheless offer some framework for making the determination of when sexual violence and rape constitute war crimes…Read more
  •  88
    Simone de Beauvoir offers one of the most interesting philosophical accounts of childhood, and, as numerous scholars have argued, it is one of the most important contributions that she made to existentialism. Beauvoir stressed the importance of childhood on one's ability to assume one's freedom. This radically changed how freedom was construed for existentialism. Rather than positing an adult subjectivity that tries to flee freedom through bad faith, Beauvoir's account forces a recognition of a …Read more
  •  78
    Political Solidarity
    Pennsylvania State University Press. 2008.
    Experiences of solidarity have figured prominently in the politics of the modern era, from the rallying cry of liberation theology for solidarity with the poor and oppressed, through feminist calls for sisterhood, to such political movements as Solidarity in Poland. Yet very little academic writing has focused on solidarity in conceptual rather than empirical terms. Sally Scholz takes on this critical task here. She lays the groundwork for a theory of political solidarity, asking what solidarity…Read more
  •  51
    The Teaching Demonstration
    Teaching Philosophy 43 (3): 331-356. 2020.
    This article seeks to shine some light on the teaching demonstration from the perspective of observers using three guiding attributes of effective teaching: connection, commitment, and coachability. Discussing what observers are looking for and how observers interpret what is seen, the article presents the basic forms, common myths, and practical wisdom for teaching demonstrations. By reframing the goals of the teaching demonstration, the article demystifies a key part of the campus interview fo…Read more
  •  49
    This article examines some of the conceptual history of collective political action within feminist movements beginning with sisterhood and moving to feminist political solidarity. I argue that feminist political solidarity is built on a commitment by individuals to form a unity in opposition to injustice or oppression. Three moral relations emerge from this understanding of feminist political solidarity: the relation to the cause, the relation among members of the solidary group, and the rela…Read more
  •  49
    Philosophical Perspectives on Democracy in the 21st Century (edited book)
    with Ann E. Cudd
    Springer. 2013.
    Chapter. 1. Philosophical. Perspectives. on. Democracy. in. the. Twenty-First. Century: Introduction. Ann E. Cudd and Sally J. Scholz Abstract Recent global movements, including the Arab Spring, the Occupy Movement, as well as polarizing ...
  •  44
    The Duty of Solidarity
    Philosophy in the Contemporary World 4 (3): 24-33. 1997.
    Catholic Social Teaching of late has a lot more in common with feminist moral theory than might be evident at first glance. After a brief explanation of Catholic Social Teaching’s duty of solidarity, and a look at some of the feminist critiques of this solidarity, I point out some of the significant similarities between feminist ethics and the duty of solidarity. The last section focuses on community and care, the epistemological role of experience and the world view of the other, the centrality…Read more
  •  42
    Iris Marion Young took a strong stance against humanitarian intervention and other so-called legitimate instances of what she calls ‘official violence’. Nevertheless, she was also aware that there may be some situations for which military humanitarian intervention should at least be considered. Young was concerned that some states will use their obligation to defend against human rights violations as a mechanism in securing or maintaining global dominance. In addition, she recognized that what c…Read more
  •  39
    March Madness
    with Eric Riviello
    Teaching Philosophy 31 (2): 141-150. 2008.
    What is at stake when students sell the highly sought-after basketball tickets they receive for free through a university’s lottery system? This article discusses a case in applied ethics taken from the experience of college students and extrapolates from that to the distribution of other scarce resources using lotteries. By examining an event relevant to the actual experience of students, we challenge them to see how normative moral theory may be used and what values are central to moral decisi…Read more
  •  39
    Seven Principles for Better Practical Ethics
    Teaching Philosophy 19 (4): 337-355. 1996.
    This paper attends to the question of how to effectively teach ethics in universities. The author challenges the accepted skepticism amongst other disciplines that philosophers are no longer equipped to teach ethics courses to accommodate the moral demands of the contemporary world. Philosophers are believed to merely focus on abstract issues concerning moral attitudes and behavior. Currently, ethics courses in universities have replaced abstract moral issues of moral theory with concrete issues…Read more
  •  37
    Simone de Beauvoir on Language
    Philosophy Today 44 (3): 211-223. 2000.
  •  33
    Political Solidarity and the More-Than-Human World
    Ethics and the Environment 18 (2): 81-99. 2013.
    In Political Solidarity, I argue that political solidarity is a relation between humans against an injustice that is human in origin. I further argue that political solidarity requires a decision-making model that acknowledges differences in social and epistemological privilege while also seeking to understand the situation of oppression or injustice and acknowledging “multiple, overlapping, and at times contradictory knowledge claims.” However, because of unequal commitments to solidaristic aim…Read more
  •  33
  •  32
    Speaking from the Heart (review)
    Radical Philosophy Review of Books 9 (9): 47-50. 1994.
  •  31
    Virtuous Bacchanalia
    with Chiji Akoma
    CLR James Journal 15 (1): 206-227. 2009.
  •  30
    Solidarity as Sanctuary
    Social Philosophy Today 36 9-21. 2020.
  •  30
    The Critical Pragmatism of Alain Locke: A Reader on Value Theory, Aesthetics, Community, Culture, Race, and Education (edited book)
    with Nancy Fraser, Astrid Franke, Mark Helbling, Judith M. Green, Richard Shusterman, Beth J. Singer, Jane Duran, Earl L. Stewart, Richard Keaveny, Rudolph V. Vanterpool, Greg Moses, Charles Molesworth, Verner D. Mitchell, Clevis Headley, Kenneth W. Stikkers, Talmadge C. Guy, Laverne Gyant, Rudolph A. Cain, Blanche Radford Curry, Segun Gbadegesin, Stephen Lester Thompson, and Paul Weithman
    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 1999.
    In its comprehensive overview of Alain Locke's pragmatist philosophy this book captures the radical implications of Locke's approach within pragmatism, the critical temper embedded in Locke's works, the central role of power and empowerment of the oppressed and the concept of broad democracy Locke employed
  •  30
    Solidarity as a Human Right
    Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 72 135-138. 2018.
    I argue that the right to solidarity may be understood as the negative right not to be hindered by social vulnerabilities in the exercise of citizen rights. I define social vulnerabilities as those vulnerabilities that result from structures of society. As a negative right, the right to solidarity shifts attention away from what is necessary for basic flourishing, and toward what is social structures that hinder full participation in other civic or political obligations and rights.
  •  28
    Femininity and Domination (review)
    Radical Philosophy Review of Books 7 (7): 5-8. 1993.
  •  27
    Resurrecting Language through Social Criticism
    Social Philosophy Today 17 203-216. 2001.
    Social criticism can take on many forms ranging from theoretical exposition to non-violent protests. This paper considers literary art as a form of social criticism and uses Morrison's novel Paradise as the exemplary case to show that the confrontation of unjust ideas through social criticism is essential in building non-oppressive relations open to diversity. In this sense, social criticism is a paradigm of communication that, although often entailing conflict, ultimately aims at reconciliation…Read more