•  21
    The Problem of Particularity in Kant’s Aesthetic Theory
    The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 4 197-208. 1999.
    In moving away from the objective, property-based theories of earlier periods to a subject-based aesthetic, Kant did not intend to give up the idea that judgments of beauty are universalizable. Accordingly, the “Deduction of Judgments of Taste” aims to show how reflective aesthetic judgments can be “imputed” a priori to all human subjects. The Deduction is not successful: Kant manages only to justify the imputation of the same form of aesthetic experience to everyone; he does not show that this …Read more
  •  5
    Kant's Modal Metaphysics, by Nicholas Stang (review)
    Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 16. 2016.
    A review of Nicholas Stang's 2016 book, Kant's Modal Metaphysics
  •  84
    Philosophy of religion in the Anglo-American tradition experienced a 'rebirth' following the 1955 publication of New Essays in Philosophical Theology (eds. Antony Flew and Alisdair MacIntyre). Fifty years later, this volume of New Essays offers a sampling of the best work in what is now a very active field, written by some of its most prominent members. A substantial introduction sketches the developments of the last half-century, while also describing the 'ethics of belief' debate in epistemolo…Read more
  •  630
    Real Repugnance and Belief about Things-in-Themselves: A Problem and Kant's Three Solutions
    In James Krueger & Benjamin Bruxvoort Lipscomb (eds.), Kant's Moral Metaphysics, Walter Degruyter. 2010.
    Kant says that it can be rational to accept propositions on the basis of non-epistemic or broadly practical considerations, even if those propositions include “transcendental ideas” of supersensible objects. He also worries, however, about how such ideas (of freedom, the soul, noumenal grounds, God, the kingdom of ends, and things-in-themselves generally) acquire genuine positive content in the absence of an appropriate connection to intuitional experience. How can we be sure that the ideas ar…Read more
  •  49
    Kant on Cognition, Givenness, and Ignorance
    Journal of the History of Philosophy 55 (1): 131-142. 2017.
    Eric Watkins and Marcus Willaschek provide a valuable service to people working on Kant’s epistemology and philosophy of mind by laying out a synoptic picture of Kant’s view of theoretical cognition. Their picture incorporates admirably clear accounts of the familiar building blocks of cognition—sensation, intuition, concept, and judgment—as well as some innovative interpretive theses of their own. Watkins and Willaschek’s basic claim is that, for Kant, theoretical cognition is “a mental state […Read more
  •  597
    On going back to Kant
    Philosophical Forum 39 (2): 109-124. 2008.
    A broad overview of the NeoKantian movement in Germany, written as an introduction to a series of essays about that movement. -/- .
  •  358
    Beauty as a symbol of natural systematicity
    British Journal of Aesthetics 46 (4): 406-415. 2006.
    I examine Kant's claim that a relation of symbolization links judgments of beauty and judgments of ‘systematicity’ in nature (that is, judgments concerning the ordering of natural forms under hierarchies of laws). My aim is to show that the symbolic relation between the two is, for Kant, much closer than many commentators think: it is not only the form but also the objects of some of our judgments of taste that symbolize the systematicity of nature.
  •  42
    An early version of "Kant on the Normativity of Taste" above.
  •  191
    Rational hope, possibility, and divine action
    In Gordon E. Michalson (ed.), Religion within the Bounds of Mere Reason: A Critical Guide, Cambridge University Press. pp. 98-117. 2014.
    Commentators typically neglect the distinct nature and role of hope in Kant’s system, and simply lump it together with the sort of Belief that arises from the moral proof. Kant himself is not entirely innocent of the conflation. Here I argue, however, that from a conceptual as well as a textual point of view, hope should be regarded as a different kind of attitude. It is an attitude that we can rationally adopt toward some of the doctrines that are not able to be proved from within the bounds of …Read more
  •  86
    Prolegomena to any future non-doxastic religion
    Religious Studies 49 (2): 195-207. 2013.
    A discussion of the relationship between religion and belief, in the context of an engagement with J.L. Schellenberg's recent "Prolegomena." I suggest that there may be an authentic way of being "religious" without having full-blown religious belief.
  • Kants Vorsehungskonzept auf dem Hintergrund der deutschen Schulphilosophie und -theologie (review)
    Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1): 143-147. 2012.
  •  462
    Kant's concepts of justification
    Noûs 41 (1). 2007.
    An essay on Kant's theory of justification, where by “justification” is meant the evaluative concept that specifies conditions under which a propositional attitude is rationally acceptable with a moderate-to-high degree of confidence. Kant employs both epistemic and non-epistemic concepts of justification: an epistemic concept of justification sets out conditions under which a propositional attitude is rationally acceptable with a moderate-to-high degree of confidence and a candidate (if true an…Read more
  •  339
    Causal refutations of idealism revisited
    Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242): 184-186. 2011.
    Causal refutations of external-world scepticism start from our ability to make justified judgements about the order of our own experiences, and end with the claim that there must be perceptible external objects, some of whose states can be causally correlated with that order. In a recent paper, I made a series of objections to this broadly Kantian anti-sceptical strategy. Georges Dicker has provided substantive replies on behalf of a version of the causal refutation of idealism. Here I offer a f…Read more
  •  517
    'As Kant Has Shown:' Analytic Theology and the Critical Philosophy
    In M. Rea & O. Crisp (eds.), Analytic Theology, Oxford University Press. pp. 116--135. 2009.
    On why Kant may not have shown what modern theologians often take him to have shown.
  •  70
    Neo-Kantianism in Contemporary Philosophy (review)
    with Peter Gilgen
    Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. 2013.
    A review of a volume on Neo-Kantianism edited by Rudolf Makkreel and Sebastian Luft. -/- .
  •  354
    NeoKantian philosophies of science: Cassirer, Kuhn, and Friedman
    Philosophical Forum 39 (2): 253-262. 2008.
    A description and critique of aspects of Michael Friedman's latter day NeoKantian program in the philosophy of science.
  •  524
    Kant on the normativity of taste: The role of aesthetic ideas
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy 85 (3). 2007.
    For Kant, the form of a subject's experience of an object provides the normative basis for an aesthetic judgement about it. In other words, if the subject's experience of an object has certain structural properties, then Kant thinks she can legitimately judge that the object is beautiful - and that it is beautiful for everyone. My goal in this paper is to provide a new account of how this 'subjective universalism' is supposed to work. In doing so, I appeal to Kant's notions of an aesthetic idea …Read more
  •  86
    Infant suffering revisited
    Religious Studies 37 (4): 475-484. 2001.
    I respond to two sets of objections to my characterization of infant suffering and the problem that it presents to traditional theism. My main theses were that infant suffering to death is not ‘horrendous’ in the technical sense defined, but that a good God still needs to "balance off" rather than "defeat" such suffering. David Basinger, on the other hand, claims that some infant suffering should be considered horrendous, while Nathan Nobis suggests that such suffering must be defeated rather th…Read more
  •  906
    Belief in Kant
    Philosophical Review 116 (3): 323-360. 2007.
    Most work in Kant’s epistemology focuses on what happens “upstream” from experience, prior to the formation of conscious propositional attitudes. By contrast, this essay focuses on what happens "downstream": the formation of assent (Fuerwahrhalten) in its various modes. The mode of assent that Kant calls "Belief" (Glaube) is the main topic: not only moral Belief but also "pragmatic" and "doctrinal" Belief as well. I argue that Kant’s discussion shows that we should reject standard accounts of …Read more
  •  250
    Three Skeptics and the Critique: Review of Michael Forster's Kant and Skepticism
    with Colin Mclear
    Philosophical Books 51 (4): 228-244. 2010.
    A long critical notice of Michael Forster's recent book, "Kant and Skepticism." We argue that Forster's characterization of Kant's response to skepticism is both textually dubious and philosophically flawed. -/- .
  •  495
    Review: Saving God from Saving God (review)
    Books and Culture 15 (3). 2012.
    Mark Johnston’s book, Saving God (Princeton University Press, 2010) has two main goals, one negative and the other positive: (1) to eliminate the gods of the major Western monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) as candidates for the role of “the Highest One”; (2) to introduce the real Highest One, a panentheistic deity worthy of devotion and capable of extending to us the grace needed to transform us from inwardly-turned sinners to practitioners of agape. In this review, we argue that Jo…Read more
  •  60
    Review: Glock (ed.), Strawson and Kant (review)
    Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (8). 2004.
    A review of Hans-Johann Glock's edited volume.
  •  1
    Most accounts of Kant's epistemology focus narrowly on cognition and knowledge . Kant himself, however, thought that there are many other important species of assent : opinion, persuasion, conviction, belief, acceptance, and assent to the deliverances of common sense. ;My goal in this dissertation is to isolate and motivate the principles of rational acceptability which, for Kant, govern each of these kinds of assent, instead of focusing merely on cognition and knowledge. Some of the principles …Read more
  •  122
    Descartes's lack of clarity about the causal connections between brain states and mental states has led many commentators to conclude that he has no coherent account of body-mind relations in sensation, or that he was simply confused about the issue. In this paper I develop what I take to be a coherent account that was available to Descartes, and argue that there are both textual and systematic reasons to think that it was his considered view. The account has brain states serving as occasions fo…Read more