• VU University Amsterdam
    Department of Philosophy
    Amsterdam University Medical Centres (location VUmc)
    Dimence Groep, hospital for mental healthcare
    Professor (Part-time)
Utrecht University
Department for Philosophy and Religious Studies
PhD, 1991
Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  •  3
    Dimensions of self-illness ambiguity – a clinical and conceptual approach
    Philosophical Explorations 26 (2): 165-178. 2023.
    The article investigates the concept of self-illness ambiguity (SIA), which was recently re-introduced in the philosophy of psychiatry literature. SIA refers to situations in which patients are uncertain about whether features (symptoms, signs) of their illness should be attributed to their illness or to their ‘selves’. Identification of these features belongs to a more encompassing process of self- definition and -interpretation. The paper introduces a distinction between the notions of self-re…Read more
  • This work provides an overview of attempts to assess the current condition of the concept of creation order within reformational philosophy compared to other perspectives. Focusing on the natural and life sciences, and theology, this first volume of two examines the arguments for and against the beauty, coherence and order shown in the natural world being related to the will or nature of a Creator. It examines the decay of a Deist universe, and the idea of the pre-givenness of norms, laws and st…Read more
  •  4
    Understanding lone actor grievance-fueled violence remains a challenge. We believe that the concept of grievance provides an opportunity to add an engaged, first-person perspective to the assessment of lone actor extreme violence. We propose an enactivist philosophical approach that can help to understand the why and how of the pathway from grievance to violent extremism. Enactivism sees grievance as a dynamic, interpersonal, and context-sensitive construct that indicates how offenders make sens…Read more
  •  79
    Using Network Models in Person-Centered Care in Psychiatry: How Perspectivism Could Help To Draw Boundaries
    with Nina de Boer, Daniel Kostić, Marcos Ross, and Leon de Bruin
    Frontiers in Psychiatry, Section Psychopathology 13 (925187). 2022.
    In this paper, we explore the conceptual problems arising when using network analysis in person- centered care (PCC) in psychiatry. Personalized network models are potentially helpful tools for PCC, but we argue that using them in psychiatric practice raises boundary problems, i.e., problems in demarcating what should and should not be included in the model, which may limit their ability to provide clinically-relevant knowledge. Models can have explanatory and representational boundaries, among …Read more
  •  3
    This book focuses on two important, interlinked themes in psychiatry, i.e., the relation between self (or: person), context and psychopathology; and the intrinsic value-ladenness of psychiatry as a practice. Written against the background of scientistic tendencies in today’s psychiatry, it is argued in Part I that psychiatry needs a clinical conception of psychopathology alongside more traditional scientific conceptions; that this clinical conception of psychopathology must be based on a fundam…Read more
  •  10
    Editors’ Note
    with Jeroen de Ridder and Mathanja Berger
    Philosophia Reformata 83 (1): 1. 2018.
  •  1
    with Rik Peels, Leon de Bruin, and Mathanja Berger
    Philosophia Reformata 86 (1): 1-3. 2021.
  •  19
    Borsboom and colleagues have recently proposed a “network theory” of psychiatric disorders that conceptualizes psychiatric disorders as relatively stable networks of causally interacting symptoms. They have also claimed that the network theory should include non-symptom variables such as environmental factors. How are environmental factors incorporated in the network theory, and what kind of explanations of psychiatric disorders can such an “extended” network theory provide? The aim of this arti…Read more
  •  24
    Reintroducing Consciousness in Psychopathology: Review of the Literature and Conceptual Framework (review)
    with Gert Ouwersloot and Jan Derksen
    Frontiers in Psychology 11. 2020.
    Alterations in consciousness are among the most common transdiagnostic psychopathological symptoms. Therefore clinical practice would benefit from a clear conceptual framework that guides the recognition, comprehension, and treatment of consciousness disorders. However, contemporary psychopathology lacks such a framework. We describe how pathology of consciousness is currently being addressed in clinical psychology and psychiatry so far, and how the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Di…Read more
  •  10
    Self-Management as Socially Embedded Endeavor
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4): 425-430. 2020.
    When we first anticipated the research project concluded with this special issue, about 8 years ago, it seemed timely and appropriate to investigate the opportunities and the challenges of self-management in mental health care. At the time self-management was well on the rise in general health care, offering both empowerment to patients and efficiency and cost-effectiveness to the health care system. It seemed a most promising approach in an era that celebrates individualistic self-reliance. And…Read more
  •  21
    Dealing with Self-Illness Ambiguity: A Rebuttal
    with Roy Dings
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4): 353-354. 2020.
    We thank Sanneke de Haan for her thoughtful response. We agree with what she says and consider it as a further specification of our intentions. We particularly endorse the two main points she raises, that is, that dealing with self-illness ambiguity requires a relational perspective; and that relying on reflection solely is problematic since it plays an only modest role in the resolution of self-illness ambiguity. We discuss both points in reverse order.With respect to the role of reflection, we…Read more
  •  31
    Self-Management in Psychiatry as Reducing Self-Illness Ambiguity
    with Roy Dings
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (4): 333-347. 2020.
  •  4
    In the context of theistic religions, God representations are an important factor in explaining associations between religion/spirituality and well-being/mental health. Although the limitations of self-report measures of God representations are widely acknowledged, well-validated implicit measures are still unavailable. Therefore, we developed an implicit Attachment to God measure, the Apperception Test God Representations. In this study, we examined reliability and validity of an experimental s…Read more
  •  3
    On Stories Within and Stories Behind Symptoms: Response to Colombetti and Stein
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (1): 57-58. 2020.
    I thank Giovanna Colombetti and Dan Stein for their careful reading and thoughtful comments.Colombetti is right when she suggests that in enactivism there are no 'mere physiological states.' She criticizes the following quotation: "If there is no self-referentiality, even after attempts at clarification, the putative emotion is just a physiological state or a sensation." My formulation, she says, echoes traditional, disembodied cognitivist accounts of emotion, according to which bodily arousal a…Read more
  •  36
    An Enactive Approach to Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 27 (1): 35-50. 2020.
    Enactive approaches to emotion are rare and to anxiety and anxiety disorder even more. This article aims to show how an enactive paradigm might be helpful in solving some problems in the clinical and scientific understanding of anxiety and anxiety disorder. I begin by pointing at a number of relevant clinical features of anxiety and anxiety disorder and by sketching how and why anxiety theories have difficulties with doing justice to these features. I specifically focus on two themes: a) how to …Read more
  •  3
    Translatie als filosofisch programma
    Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 111 (3): 453-476. 2019.
    Translation as philosophical program: An explorative reviewWhat does the concept of translation mean in the expression ‘translational neuroscience’? What are the different steps, or components, in the translation of neuroscientific findings to psychiatry? There are serious concerns about the validity and productivity of the traditional idea of a translational pipeline, starting in the fundamental sciences and ending in the practice of clinical medicine, including psychiatry. The article defends …Read more
  •  1
    with Jeroen de Ridder and Mathanja Berger
    Philosophia Reformata 83 (2): 147-148. 2018.
  •  26
    Psychiatry as Normative Practice
    Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (1): 33-48. 2019.
    One of paradoxes of current mental health care is that we never have known more about mental disorder and at the same time been more uncertain about the conceptual basis—and, therefore, the legitimacy—of psychiatry.This is remarkable. Psychiatry as a science flourishes. Over the last three decades, there has been an enormous increase in empirical research on the genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and social determinants of mental disorder. At the same time, mental health care has improved …Read more
  •  10
    Sustainable Livestock Farming as Normative Practice
    with Corné J. Rademaker and Henk Jochemsen
    Philosophia Reformata 82 (2): 216-240. 2017.
  •  18
    Special Issue: Normative Practices
    Philosophia Reformata 82 (2): 117-120. 2017.
  •  29
    Over the last years, self-management has become a central value in the practice of mental health care. Patients are positioned as expertclients who are actively involved in the management of their disease. Some of the ideas that are implied in the concept of self-management may raise important and intriguing questions. For instance, in the context of psychiatry impaired agency and altered self-experience are often part of the psychopathological process itself. The capacity to manage oneself may …Read more
  •  5
    De status van het menselijk embryo
    with G. Glas, H. Jochemsen, W. G. M. Witkam, P. Blokhuis, and E. Schuurman
  •  93
    Elements of a phenomenology of evil and reconciliation (edited book)
    Oxford University Press. 2006.
  •  8
    This is the second of three articles on the relationship between science, religion and professional practice in psychology and psychiatry. The first article pointed out that the weakness of the integration debate consists of lack of awareness of the epistemological distinction between everyday knowledge, professional knowledge, scientific knowledge and philosophical assumptions. This article shows how the integration debate gains new impetus by relating knowledge to practices and by investigatin…Read more