•  23
    Libertarianism without alternative possibilities
    Metaphilosophy 55 (2): 101-114. 2024.
    In the contemporary debate on free will, most philosophers assume that the defense of libertarianism implies the defense of the notion of alternative possibilities. This article discusses this presupposition by showing that it is possible to build a libertarianism without alternative possibilities, apparently more robust than libertarianism with alternative possibilities. Inspired by Bergson, this nonclassical libertarianism challenges the idea that all causation implies the actualization of a p…Read more
  •  132
    Panpsychism in Bergson and James
    Bergsoniana 2 155-176. 2022.
    The aim of this article is to show that Bergson and James defend a form of panpsychism, and that on this point, Bergson probably had an influence on James. For Bergson, matter has psychic characters, in particular a memory of the immediate past and a motor memory. These characters are necessary to explain causation within the physical world, understood then as analogous to automatic activity in living beings. However, according to Bergson, there is a radical distinction between the inert and the…Read more
  •  31
    The more science progresses, the more it is evident that the physical world presents regularities. This raises a metaphysical problem: why is the world so ordered? In the first part of the article, I attempt to clarify this problem and justify its relevance. In the following three parts, I analyze three hypotheses already formulated in philosophy in response to this problem: the hypothesis that the order of the world is explained 1) by laws of nature, 2) by dispositions of the fundamental physic…Read more
  •  71
    Bergson's Theory of Free Will
    Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 28 (2): 94-115. 2020.
    Bergson argues that there is an incompatibility between free will and determinism: while free will has a dimension of creation, of invention, determinism corresponds to the idea that the future is fixed in advance by laws. In addition, he rejects determinism. According to him, the singularity of our deep-seated psychic states makes that their evolution cannot be governed by laws. However, Bergson does not defend classical indeterminism because it reduces free will to a choice between alternative…Read more
  •  51
    Jaegwon Kim développe l’argument suivant contre le dualisme psycho-physique : (i) Dans le dualisme, l’esprit est dénué de spatialité. (ii) Or, la relation causale requiert des relations spatiales entre la cause et l’effet. (iii) Par conséquent, dans le dualisme, l’esprit ne peut être ni cause ni effet. Après avoir exposé les détails de cet argument, j’en discute les prémisses. En m’appuyant sur Hume, je montre que la relation causale est concevable sans relation spatiale entre la cause et l’effe…Read more
  •  28
    Einstein et l'univers-bloc
    Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 71 (1): 79-109. 2018.
    Throughout his scientific life, Einstein thinks about the philosophical implications of his own work on time. From 1918, he makes a connection between the theory of relativity and the block-universe conception, according to which all moments of time coexist. Later, he clarifies this connection, explaining that the block-universe conception is the most convenient and objective interpretation of the theory. Einstein also develops the idea that, due to its deterministic commitment, physics as a who…Read more
  •  67
    Laws of Nature or Panpsychism?
    Journal of Consciousness Studies 24 (1-2): 87-110. 2017.
    The idea that there are ‘laws of nature’ is a widespread scientific opinion. On the one hand, I argue that this idea has the crucial function to explain the obvious similarities of physical processes. On the other hand, I show that this idea can be replaced by the hypothesis supporting that a minimal consciousness immanent to matter governs its processes. This latter hypothesis may seem surprising, but compared to that of laws, it is more empirical in the sense that it is inspired by our conscio…Read more
  •  86
    Bergson’s panpsychism
    Continental Philosophy Review 51 (4): 549-564. 2018.
    Physical processes manifest an objective order that science manages to discover. Commonly, it is considered that these processes obey the “laws of nature.” Bergson disputes this idea which ultimately constitutes a kind of Platonism. In contrast, he develops the idea that physical processes are a particular case of automatic behaviors. In this sense, they imply a motor memory immanent to matter, whose actions are triggered by some perceptions. This approach is obviously panpsychist. It gives matt…Read more
  •  32
    Le présent comme corps vécu, selon Bergson
    Revue Philosophique De Louvain 112 (4): 703-726. 2014.
    D’abord, nous montrons que, pour Bergson, le présent n’est pas un instant-limite qui séparerait le passé et l’avenir, car un tel instant est simplement conçu, en rapport à un temps homogène lui-même simplement conçu. Bien que possédant un intérêt pratique, cette conception du présent n’a pas de valeur spéculative. Ensuite, nous montrons que, selon Bergson, le présent connu par expérience, c’est-à-dire le présent vécu, se distingue qualitativement du passé par son extension: il est la conscience …Read more
  •  36
    Le dualisme de Bergson à la lumière de la physique
    Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 137 (2): 191-207. 2012.
    Le dualisme est peu répandu aujourd'hui, en philosophie de l'esprit. Le plus souvent, il est réduit au dualisme de Descartes, dont certaines faiblesses permettent une critique facile. Pourtant, un autre classique, plus proche de nous, défend un dualisme différent de Descartes : il s'agit de Bergson. Un des traits les plus intéressants du dualisme de Bergson est qu'il s'accompagne d'une conception relativement précise de la matière, qui rencontre assez bien la physique d'aujourd'hui. En comparais…Read more
  •  84
    Bergson est connu pour son dualisme psycho-physique. Mais, dans sa philosophie, on trouve aussi une conception panpsychiste de la matière : l’idée que la matière inerte est douée d’un degré minime de conscience. Or, il est intéressant de remarquer que ce panpsychisme constitue en fait une théorie de la causalité, plus précisément une interprétation ontologique des notions scientifiques de « force » et de « loi de la nature ». Si cette théorie est pertinente, comme nous le pensons, elle apporte u…Read more
  •  106
    From Mind to Matter: How Bergson Anticipated Quantum Ideas
    Mind and Matter 10 (1): 25-45. 2012.
    In his book Matter and Memory of 1896, Bergson anticipated the quantum conception of matter: the idea that particles have a holistic nature, that matter is not substantial, that the movement and the position of a body cannot be determined simultaneously, and that physical processes do not obey a strict necessity. Surprisingly, he drew these conclusions from a reflection about the relation between mind and matter, in particular from his idea that perception is a relative coincidence of mind with …Read more
  •  36
    Joël Dolbeault | : D’abord, nous expliquons comment Bergson caractérise la liberté, et pourquoi celle-ci s’oppose à la fois au déterminisme et au hasard. Ensuite, nous montrons que la théorie bergsonienne de la liberté repose principalement sur l’idée que les états psychiques ne sont pas les occurrences de certains types, ce qui conduit à penser que leur apparition n’est pas gouvernée par l’action de lois. L’acte libre est causé par un sujet empirique, mais cette causalité n’est pas gouvernée pa…Read more