• Handling Correlations Between Covariates and Random Slopes in Multilevel Models
    with M. D. Bates, S. Rabe-Hesketh, and A. Skrondal
    © 2014 AERA. This article discusses estimation of multilevel/hierarchical linear models that include cluster-level random intercepts and random slopes. Viewing the models as structural, the random intercepts and slopes represent the effects of omitted cluster-level covariates that may be correlated with included covariates. The resulting correlations between random effects and included covariates, which we refer to as “cluster-level endogeneity,” lead to bias when using standard random effects e…Read more