•  26
    In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence, entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’. This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan industry, and to emerge as the driving force in defining ethical norms and standards for AI. Several reports have analysed specific aspects of China’s AI policies or have assessed the country’s technical capabi…Read more
  •  19
    Algorithmic Fairness in Mortgage Lending: from Absolute Conditions to Relational Trade-offs
    with Michelle Seng Ah Lee
    Minds and Machines 31 (1): 165-191. 2020.
    To address the rising concern that algorithmic decision-making may reinforce discriminatory biases, researchers have proposed many notions of fairness and corresponding mathematical formalizations. Each of these notions is often presented as a one-size-fits-all, absolute condition; however, in reality, the practical and ethical trade-offs are unavoidable and more complex. We introduce a new approach that considers fairness—not as a binary, absolute mathematical condition—but rather, as a relatio…Read more
  •  21
    Mind the App—Considerations on the Ethical Risks of COVID-19 Apps
    Philosophy and Technology 33 (2): 167-172. 2020.
  •  883
    This chapter serves as an introduction to the edited collection of the same name, which includes chapters that explore digital well-being from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including philosophy, psychology, economics, health care, and education. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a short primer on the different disciplinary approaches to the study of well-being. To supplement this primer, we also invited key experts from several disciplines—philosophy, psychology, pub…Read more
  •  5
    Information ethics, its nature and scope
    Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 36 (3): 21-36. 2006.
    "The world of the future will be an ever more demanding struggle against the limitations of our intelligence, not a comfortable hammock in which we can lie down to be waited upon by our robot slaves"---Wiener, p. 69.
  •  24
    The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning
    with David S. Watson
    Synthese 1-32. forthcoming.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance.…Read more
  •  29
    How to Design AI for Social Good: Seven Essential Factors
    with Josh Cowls, Thomas C. King, and Mariarosaria Taddeo
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3): 1771-1796. 2020.
    The idea of artificial intelligence for social good is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to tackle social problems through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies. This article addresses this gap by identifying seven ethical factor…Read more
  •  41
    Recent years have seen a surge in online collaboration between experts and amateurs on scientific research. In this article, we analyse the epistemological implications of these crowdsourced projects, with a focus on Zooniverse, the world’s largest citizen science web portal. We use quantitative methods to evaluate the platform’s success in producing large volumes of observation statements and high impact scientific discoveries relative to more conventional means of data processing. Through empi…Read more
  •  26
    Information Quality, Data and Philosophy
    In Phyllis Illari & Luciano Floridi (eds.), The Philosophy of Information Quality, Springer International Publishing. pp. 5-23. 2014.
    In this opening chapter, we review the literature on information quality. Our major aim is to introduce the issues, and trace some of the history of the debates, with a view to situating the chapters in this volume – whose authors come from different disciplines – to help make them accessible to readers with different backgrounds and expertise. We begin in this section by tracing some influential analyses of IQ in computer science. This is a useful basis for examining some examples of developing…Read more
  •  11
    Group Privacy (edited book)
    with Bart van der Sloot and Linnet Taylor
    Springer Verlag. 2017.
  •  116
    This article reviews eight proposed strategies for solving the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP), which was given its classic formulation in Harnad (1990). After a concise introduction, we provide an analysis of the requirement that must be satisfied by any hypothesis seeking to solve the SGP, the zero semantical commitment condition. We then use it to assess the eight strategies, which are organised into three main approaches: representationalism, semi-representationalism and non-representationali…Read more
  •  88
    The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers
    with Mariarosaria Taddeo
    Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6): 1575-1603. 2016.
    Online service providers —such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter—significantly shape the informational environment and influence users’ experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method …Read more
  •  37
    The case for e-trust
    with Mariarosaria Taddeo
    Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1): 1-3. 2011.
  • Introduction: A New Perspective on Privacy
    with Bart Sloot and Linnet Taylor
    In Bart van der Sloot, Luciano Floridi & Linnet Taylor (eds.), Group Privacy, Springer Verlag. 2017.
  •  126
    On malfunctioning software
    Synthese 192 (4): 1199-1220. 2015.
    Artefacts do not always do what they are supposed to, due to a variety of reasons, including manufacturing problems, poor maintenance, and normal wear-and-tear. Since software is an artefact, it should be subject to malfunctioning in the same sense in which other artefacts can malfunction. Yet, whether software is on a par with other artefacts when it comes to malfunctioning crucially depends on the abstraction used in the analysis. We distinguish between “negative” and “positive” notions of mal…Read more
  •  1
    La sociedad del conocimiento= The society of the knowledge
    with Douglas Morgenstern, Rex Nettleford, Suely Viela, Josep Joan Moreso Mateos, and Fernando Reimiers
    Contrastes: Revista Cultural 44 109-112. 2006.
  •  263
    The Ethics of Big Data: Current and Foreseeable Issues in Biomedical Contexts
    with Brent Daniel Mittelstadt
    Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2): 303-341. 2016.
    The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as ‘Big Data’, this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometimes seemingly related only by the gigantic size of the datasets being considered. As is often the case with the cutting edge of scientific and technolog…Read more
  •  2
    Book reviews (review)
    with M. W. F. Stone, John Henry, Patricia Springborg, Patrick Riley, Paul Schuurman, Brandon Look, Sarah Hutton, D. O. Thomas, and Christopher Adair‐Toteff
    British Journal for the History of Philosophy 7 (1): 155-183. 1999.
    The Cambridge Companion to Humanism. Jill Kraye. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. xvii + 320. £35.00 hbk, £12.95 pbk. ISBN 0–521–43038–0, 0–521–43624–9. Scepticism in the History of Philosophy ‐ A Pan‐American Dialogue. Edited by Richard H. Popkin. Dordrecht‐Boston‐London, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. pp. xxii + 285, hbk, £99.00, ISBN 0–7923–3769–7 Jewish Thought and Scientific Discovery in Early Modern Europe. David B. Ruderman. Yale Univ…Read more
  •  17
    Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: An Appeal for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data
    with Jenny Krutzinna and Mariarosaria Taddeo
    Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5): 1357-1387. 2019.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical d…Read more
  •  1442
    The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate
    with Brent Mittelstadt, Patrick Allo, Mariarosaria Taddeo, and Sandra Wachter
    Big Data and Society 3 (2). 2016.
    In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, and how we perceive, understand, and interact among ourselves and with the environment. Gaps between the design and operation of algorithms and our und…Read more
  •  55
    Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Foreseeable Threats and Solutions
    with Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, and Mariarosaria Taddeo
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1): 89-120. 2020.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated mark…Read more
  • The Philosophy of Information Quality (edited book)
    Springer International Publishing. 2014.
  •  372
    What is A Philosophical Question?
    Metaphilosophy 44 (3): 195-221. 2013.
    There are many ways of understanding the nature of philosophical questions. One may consider their morphology, semantics, relevance, or scope. This article introduces a different approach, based on the kind of informational resources required to answer them. The result is a definition of philosophical questions as questions whose answers are in principle open to informed, rational, and honest disagreement, ultimate but not absolute, closed under further questioning, possibly constrained by empir…Read more
  •  22
    Why we need e-nvironmentalism
    The Philosophers' Magazine 45 12-13. 2009.
  •  1
    Why we need e-nvironmentalism
    The Philosophers' Magazine 45 12-13. 2009.
  •  92
    The tragedy of the digital commons
    with Gian Maria Greco
    Ethics and Information Technology 6 (2): 73-81. 2004.
    In the paper it is argued that bridging the digital divide may cause a new ethical and social dilemma. Using Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons, we show that an improper opening and enlargement of the digital environment (Infosphere) is likely to produce a Tragedy of the Digital Commons (TDC). In the course of the analysis, we explain why Adar and Huberman's previous use of Hardin's Tragedy to interpret certain recent phenomena in the Infosphere (especially peer-to-peer communication) may not be en…Read more
  •  43
    How to Do Philosophy Informationally
    with Gian Maria Greco, Gianluca Paronitti, and Matteo Turilli
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3782 623-634. 2005.
    In this paper we introduce three methods to approach philosophical problems informationally: Minimalism, the Method of Abstraction and Constructionism. Minimalism considers the specifications of the starting problems and systems that are tractable for a philosophical analysis. The Method of Abstraction describes the process of making explicit the level of abstraction at which a system is observed and investigated. Constructionism provides a series of principles that the investigation of the prob…Read more
  •  141
    The paper develops some of the conclusions, reached in Floridi (2007), concerning the future developments of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and their impact on our lives. The two main theses supported in that article were that, as the information society develops, the threshold between online and offline is becoming increasingly blurred, and that once there won't be any significant difference, we shall gradually re-conceptualise ourselves not as cyborgs but rather as inforgs, …Read more
  •  53
    What the Near Future of Artificial Intelligence Could Be
    Philosophy and Technology 32 (1): 1-15. 2019.
  •  2
    What is information quality?
    The Philosophers' Magazine 61 24-25. 2013.