•  135
    Trump, Parler, and regulating the infosphere as our commons
    Philosophy and Technology 34 (1). 2021.
    Following the storming of the US Capitol building, Donald Trump became digitally toxic, and was deplatformed from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube—as well as a host of other social media networks. Subsequent debate has centred on the questions of whether these companies did the right thing and the possible ramifications of their actions for the future of digital societies along with their democratic organisation. This article seeks to answer this question through examining complex, and…Read more
  •  563
    This article offers an account and defence of constructionism, both as a metaphilosophical approach and as a philosophical methodology, with references to the so-called maker's knowledge tradition. Its main thesis is that Plato's “user's knowledge” tradition should be complemented, if not replaced, by a constructionist approach to philosophical problems in general and to knowledge in particular. Epistemic agents know something when they are able to build (reproduce, simulate, model, construct, e…Read more
  •  132
    The EU proposal for the Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) defines four risk categories: unacceptable, high, limited, and minimal. However, as these categories statically depend on broad fields of application of AI systems (AIs), the risk magnitude may be wrongly estimated, and the AIA may not be enforced effectively. Our suggestion is to apply the four categories to the risk scenarios of each AIs, rather than solely to its field of application. We address this model flaw by integrating the AIA w…Read more
  •  306
    The EU proposal for the Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) defines four risk categories: unacceptable, high, limited, and minimal. However, as these categories statically depend on broad fields of application of AI, the risk magnitude may be wrongly estimated, and the AIA may not be enforced effectively. This problem is particularly challenging when it comes to regulating general-purpose AI (GPAI), which has versatile and often unpredictable applications. Recent amendments to the compromise text,…Read more
  • Replies to Broy, Gabriel, Grunwald, Hagengruber, Kriebitz, Lütge, Max, Misselhorn, and Rehbein
    In Thomas Buchheim, Volker Gerhardt, Matthias Lutz-Bachmann, Isabelle Mandrella, Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer & Wilhelm Vossenkuhl (eds.), Philosophisches Jahrbuch 2/2021, Verlag Karl Alber. pp. 378-393. 2021.
  •  5
    Wie kann Europa politisch und gesellschaftlich durch die Möglichkeiten der Digitalisierung profitieren und seine Krisen überwinden, von denen es in der letzten Zeit so geplagt wurde? Wie kann es ein „Humanprojekt“ und die Einheit von „grüner“ Ökologie und „blauer“ Informationstechnik realisieren? In diesem Band präsentiert Luciano Floridi eine Zusammenfassung seiner Thesen, wie sich die Digitalisierung ganz konkret auf politische und soziale Phänomene auswirkt, und wie nun weniger die Dinge als …Read more
  •  1
    In this article, we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change, and it can contribute to combatting the climate crisis effectively. However, the development of AI also raises two sets of problems when considering climate change: the possible exacerbation of social and ethical challenges alr…Read more
  •  3
    Today, open source intelligence (OSINT), i.e., information derived from publicly available sources, makes up between 80 and 90 percent of all intelligence activities carried out by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) and intelligence services in the West. Developments in data mining, machine learning, visual forensics and, most importantly, the growing computing power available for commercial use, have enabled OSINT practitioners to speed up, and sometimes even automate, intelligence collection and …Read more
  •  5
    The Blueprint for an AI Bill of Rights: In Search of Enaction, at Risk of Inaction
    with Emmie Hine
    Minds and Machines 1-8. forthcoming.
    The US is promoting a new vision of a “Good AI Society” through its recent AI Bill of Rights. This offers a promising vision of community-oriented equity unique amongst peer countries. However, it leaves the door open for potential rights violations. Furthermore, it may have some federal impact, but it is non-binding, and without concrete legislation, the private sector is likely to ignore it.
  •  10
    The Switch, the Ladder, and the Matrix: Models for Classifying AI Systems
    with Jakob Mökander, Margi Sheth, and David S. Watson
    Minds and Machines 33 (1): 221-248. 2023.
    Organisations that design and deploy artificial intelligence (AI) systems increasingly commit themselves to high-level, ethical principles. However, there still exists a gap between principles and practices in AI ethics. One major obstacle organisations face when attempting to operationalise AI Ethics is the lack of a well-defined material scope. Put differently, the question to which systems and processes AI ethics principles ought to apply remains unanswered. Of course, there exists no univers…Read more
  •  6
    Artificial intelligence in support of the circular economy: ethical considerations and a path forward
    with Huw Roberts, Joyce Zhang, Ben Bariach, Josh Cowls, Ben Gilburt, Prathm Juneja, Andreas Tsamados, Marta Ziosi, and Mariarosaria Taddeo
    AI and Society 1-14. forthcoming.
    The world’s current model for economic development is unsustainable. It encourages high levels of resource extraction, consumption, and waste that undermine positive environmental outcomes. Transitioning to a circular economy (CE) model of development has been proposed as a sustainable alternative. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a crucial enabler for CE. It can aid in designing robust and sustainable products, facilitate new circular business models, and support the broader infrastructures need…Read more
  •  1
    Climate Change and the Terrible Hope
    Philosophy and Technology 36 (1): 1-4. 2022.
  • The Ethics of Biomedical Big Data (edited book)
    Imprint: Springer. 2016.
    This book presents cutting edge research on the new ethical challenges posed by biomedical Big Data technologies and practices. 'Biomedical Big Data' refers to the analysis of aggregated, very large datasets to improve medical knowledge and clinical care. The book describes the ethical problems posed by aggregation of biomedical datasets and re-use/re-purposing of data, in areas such as privacy, consent, professionalism, power relationships, and ethical governance of Big Data platforms. Approach…Read more
  •  2
    Group Privacy: New Challenges of Data Technologies (edited book)
    with Linnet Taylor and Bart van der Sloot
    Imprint: Springer. 2016.
    The goal of the book is to present the latest research on the new challenges of data technologies. It will offer an overview of the social, ethical and legal problems posed by group profiling, big data and predictive analysis and of the different approaches and methods that can be used to address them. In doing so, it will help the reader to gain a better grasp of the ethical and legal conundrums posed by group profiling. The volume first maps the current and emerging uses of new data technologi…Read more
  •  48
    The modern abundance and prominence of data have led to the development of “data science” as a new field of enquiry, along with a body of epistemological reflections upon its foundations, methods, and consequences. This article provides a systematic analysis and critical review of significant open problems and debates in the epistemology of data science. We propose a partition of the epistemology of data science into the following five domains: (i) the constitution of data science; (ii) the kind…Read more
  •  10
    Meta’s Oversight Board: A Review and Critical Assessment
    with David Wong
    Minds and Machines 1-24. forthcoming.
    Since the announcement and establishment of the Oversight Board (OB) by the technology company Meta as an independent institution reviewing Facebook and Instagram’s content moderation decisions, the OB has been subjected to scholarly scrutiny ranging from praise to criticism. However, there is currently no overarching framework for understanding the OB’s various strengths and weaknesses. Consequently, this article analyses, organises, and supplements academic literature, news articles, and Meta …Read more
  •  13
    Smart cities: reviewing the debate about their ethical implications
    with Marta Ziosi, Benjamin Hewitt, Prathm Juneja, and Mariarosaria Taddeo
    AI and Society 1-16. forthcoming.
    This paper considers a host of definitions and labels attached to the concept of smart cities to identify four dimensions that ground a review of ethical concerns emerging from the current debate. These are: network infrastructure, with the corresponding concerns of control, surveillance, and data privacy and ownership; post-political governance, embodied in the tensions between public and private decision-making and cities as post-political entities; social inclusion, expressed in the aspects o…Read more
  •  16
    On the whole, the US Algorithmic Accountability Act of 2022 (US AAA) is a pragmatic approach to balancing the benefits and risks of automated decision systems. Yet there is still room for improvement. This commentary highlights how the US AAA can both inform and learn from the European Artificial Intelligence Act (EU AIA).
  •  805
    Accountability in Artificial Intelligence: What It Is and How It Works
    Ai and Society: Knowledge, Culture and Communication 1-12. forthcoming.
    Accountability is a cornerstone of the governance of artificial intelligence (AI). However, it is often defined too imprecisely because its multifaceted nature and the sociotechnical structure of AI systems imply a variety of values, practices, and measures to which accountability in AI can refer. We address this lack of clarity by defining accountability in terms of answerability, identifying three conditions of possibility (authority recognition, interrogation, and limitation of power), and an…Read more
  •  38
    Metaverse: a Matter of Experience
    Philosophy and Technology 35 (3): 1-7. 2022.
  •  2
    Artificial evil and the foundation of computer ethics
    Ethics and Information Technology 3 (1): 55-66. 2001.
    Moral reasoning traditionally distinguishes two types of evil:moral and natural. The standard view is that ME is the product of human agency and so includes phenomena such as war, torture and psychological cruelty; that NE is the product of nonhuman agency, and so includes natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, disease and famine; and finally, that more complex cases are appropriately analysed as a combination of ME and NE. Recently, as a result of developments in autonomousagents in cyb…Read more
  •  16
    As China and the United States strive to be the primary global leader in AI, their visions are coming into conflict. This is frequently painted as a fundamental clash of civilisations, with evidence based primarily around each country’s current political system and present geopolitical tensions. However, such a narrow view claims to extrapolate into the future from an analysis of a momentary situation, ignoring a wealth of historical factors that influence each country’s prevailing philosophy of…Read more
  •  5
    The Economy of Waste
    Philosophy and Technology 35 (2): 1-4. 2022.
  •  12
    Local Explanations via Necessity and Sufficiency: Unifying Theory and Practice
    with David S. Watson, Limor Gultchin, and Ankur Taly
    Minds and Machines 32 (1): 185-218. 2022.
    Necessity and sufficiency are the building blocks of all successful explanations. Yet despite their importance, these notions have been conceptually underdeveloped and inconsistently applied in explainable artificial intelligence, a fast-growing research area that is so far lacking in firm theoretical foundations. In this article, an expanded version of a paper originally presented at the 37th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, we attempt to fill this gap. Building on work in …Read more