•  398
    The problem of natural evil I: General theistic replies
    Philosophy Compass 4 (3): 533-559. 2009.
    I examine different strategies involved in stating anti-theistic arguments from natural evil, and consider some theistic replies. There are, traditionally, two main types of arguments from natural evil: those that purport to deduce a contradiction between the existence of natural evil and the existence of God, and those that claim that the existence of certain types or quantities of natural evil significantly lowers the probability that theism is true. After considering peripheral replies, I sta…Read more
  •  216
    The problem of natural evil II: Hybrid replies
    Philosophy Compass 4 (3): 560-574. 2009.
    I consider two views that combine different elements of general theistic replies to natural evil, those of Peter van Inwagen and William Hasker. I end with a Hasker-style defense – one that, unlike Hasker's, denies the existence of pointless natural evils – and some brief observations on the direction of future debate.
  •  96
    God, the Best, and Evil (review)
    Philosophical Quarterly 60 (239): 432-446. 2010.
  •  45
    Frames, Choice-Reversal, and Consent
    Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18 (5): 1049-1057. 2015.
    Recently Jason Hanna has argued that a particular type of susceptibility to framing effects—namely, the tendency to reverse one’s choice between certain logically equivalent frames—invalidates actual tokens of consent. Here I argue that this claim is false: proneness to choice-reversal per se between the relevant types of frames does not invalidate consent
  •  43
  •  42
    Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations
    with Robin Pierce, Sabune Winkler, I. Glenn Cohen, Holly Fernandez Lynch, and Barbara E. Bierer
    American Journal of Bioethics 17 (3): 3-14. 2017.
    The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for…Read more
  •  39
    When and Why Is Research without Consent Permissible?
    Hastings Center Report 46 (2): 35-43. 2016.
    The view that research with competent adults requires valid consent to be ethical perhaps finds its clearest expression in the Nuremberg Code, whose famous first principle asserts that “the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.” In a similar vein, the United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights states that “no one shall be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.” Yet although some formulations of the consent p…Read more
  •  33
    In Particular Circumstances Attempting Unproven Interventions Is Permissible and Even Obligatory
    with Bruce D. White and Wayne N. Shelton
    American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4): 53-55. 2015.
  •  25
    Rights, Nudging, and the Good of Others
    American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11): 17-19. 2016.
  •  20
    Institutions as an ethical locus of research prioritisation
    with Holly Fernandez Lynch, Barbara Bierer, and I. Glenn Cohen
    Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12): 816-818. 2017.
    Ensuring that clinical trials, once launched, successfully complete and generate useful knowledge is an important and indeed ethically imperative goal, given the risks and burdens borne by research participants. Since there are insufficient willing research participants to power all the trials that are currently undertaken,1 addressing underenrolment will require prioritisation decisions that reduce the number of trials competing for participants. While there are multiple levels at which researc…Read more
  •  18
    On Scarcity and the Value of Clinical Trials
    with Holly Fernandez Lynch, Barbara E. Bierer, and I. Glenn Cohen
    American Journal of Bioethics 18 (4): 71-73. 2018.
  •  16
    Mutual Obligations in Research and Withholding Payment From Deceptive Participants
    with Holly Fernandez Lynch and Emily A. Largent
    American Journal of Bioethics 18 (4): 85-87. 2018.
  •  14
    Nonexceptionalism, Research Risks, and Social Media: Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations”
    with Robin Pierce, Sabune Winkler, Glenn Cohen, Holly Fernandez Lynch, and Barbara E. Bierer
    American Journal of Bioethics 17 (5): 1-3. 2017.
  •  12
    Social Media as an Ethical Tool for Retention in Clinical Trials
    with Barbara E. Bierer
    American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6): 62-64. 2019.
    Volume 19, Issue 6, June 2019, Page 62-64.
  •  10
    When clinical trials compete: prioritising study recruitment
    with Holly Fernandez Lynch, Barbara E. Bierer, and I. Glenn Cohen
    Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (12): 803-809. 2017.
    It is not uncommon for multiple clinical trials at the same institution to recruit concurrently from the same patient population. When the relevant pool of patients is limited, as it often is, trials essentially compete for participants. There is evidence that such a competition is a predictor of low study accrual, with increased competition tied to increased recruitment shortfalls. But there is no consensus on what steps, if any, institutions should take to approach this issue. In this article,…Read more
  •  7
    COVID-19 and consent for research: Navigating during a global pandemic
    with Ran D. Goldman
    Clinical Ethics 147775092097180. forthcoming.
    The modern ethical framework demands informed consent for research participation that includes disclosure of material information, as well as alternatives. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic results in illness that often involves rapid deterioration. Despite the urgent need to find therapy, obtaining informed consent for COVID-19 research is needed. The current pandemic presents three types of challenges for investigators faced with obtaining informed consent for resear…Read more
  •  6
    Ethical Challenges in Clinical Research During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    with B. E. Bierer, S. A. White, and J. M. Barnes
    Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 17 (4): 717-722. 2020.
    The sudden emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic brought global disruption to every aspect of society including healthcare, supply chain, the economy, and social interaction. Among the many emergent considerations were the safety and public health of the public, patients, essential workers, and healthcare professionals. In certain locations, clinical research was halted—or terminated—in deference to the immediate needs of patient care, and clinical trials focusing on the treatment and prevention of…Read more
  •  4
    The Decision to Enroll in a Clinical Trial Should Be Unencumbered
    with Barbara E. Bierer
    American Journal of Bioethics 20 (9): 23-25. 2020.
    Volume 20, Issue 9, September 2020, Page 23-25.
  •  1
    On measuring attitudes about payment for research
    Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (12): 833-834. 2020.
    Significant attention has been given both to the ethics of Controlled Human Infection Model research and the ethics of payment for research participation. However, comparatively little attention has been given to the ethics of paying for participation specifically in CHIM research. Grimwade et al should be commended for thoughtfully addressing this topic and especially for the empirical data collection informing their work, which is too often lacking in discussions of payment for research partic…Read more