Leipzig, Saxony, Germany
  • Critique
    In Ludger Kühnhardt & Tilman Mayer (eds.), The Bonn Handbook of Globality: Volume 1, Springer Verlag. pp. 363-373. 2019.
    The modern concept of critique was originally formed mainly by Kant but was subsequently taken over and modified by the tradition of Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. This article considers Kant’s concept of critique in some detail, including his historical and autobiographical conception that metaphysics passes from dogmatism to skepticism to critique. It also sketches the modification of the concept by Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School into one of social critique, a theory of social i…Read more
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    Wittgenstein on the Arbitrariness of Grammar
    Princeton University Press. 2005.
    What is the nature of a conceptual scheme? Are there alternative conceptual schemes? If so, are some more justifiable or correct than others? The later Wittgenstein already addresses these fundamental philosophical questions under the general rubric of "grammar" and the question of its "arbitrariness"--and does so with great subtlety. This book explores Wittgenstein's views on these questions. Part I interprets his conception of grammar as a generalized version of Kant's transcendental idealist …Read more
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    Ursprung Und Wesen Des Hegelschen Geistbegriffs
    Hegel-Jahrbuch 2011 (1): 213-229. 2011.
  • Herder's Philosophy
    Oxford University Press. 2018.
    Johann Gottfried Herder is a towering figure in modern thought, but one who has hitherto been severely underappreciated. Michael Forster seeks to rectify that situation by exploring the full range of his ideas, and showing their enormous impact in philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, and comparative literature.
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    Forms of Reasoning in Western and Chinese Philosophy
    Journal of Chinese Philosophy 44 (1-2): 10-32. 2017.
    I would like in this article to make some tentative comparative observations about several sorts of reasoning in Western and Chinese philosophy. I try to say something about three important forms of reasoning: logic, skepticism, and practical reason. In each of these cases one can find strands of Chinese philosophy that are strikingly similar to counterparts in Western philosophy. And while in two of the cases in question the strands involved are less common and less fully developed than their W…Read more
  •  15
    Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation
    with Helmut Leder, Juergen Goller, and Tanya Rigotti
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10. 2016.
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    Back to the future: A methodology for comparing old A-level and new AS standards
    with Gill Elliott, Jackie Greatorex, and John F. Bell
    Educational Studies 28 (2): 163-180. 2002.
    Curriculum 2000 has meant significant change for the post-16 sector. New qualifications have been introduced (e.g. the new Advanced Subsidiary examination) and the number of students involved in education and training post-16 has increased. In this scenario how can the standards of new qualifications, particularly the new Advanced Subsidiary examinations, be compared with those of previous qualifications? One method is to use the prior achievement of candidates (i.e. GCSE results) as a basis for…Read more
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    In Kant and Skepticism, Princeton University Press. 2010.
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    In Kant and Skepticism, Princeton University Press. pp. 93-148. 2010.
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    Herder: Philosophical Writings (edited book)
    Cambridge University Press. 2002.
    Johann Gottfried von Herder is one of the most important German philosophers of the eighteenth century, who had enormous influence on later thinkers such as Hegel, Schleiermacher and Nietzsche. His wide-ranging ideas were formative in the development of linguistics, hermeneutics, anthropology and bible scholarship, and even today they retain their vitality and relevance to an extraordinary degree. This volume presents a translation of Herder's most important and characteristic philosophical writ…Read more
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    What was the source of this great flowering? Much of the credit for it has tended to go to Jacobi and Mendelssohn, who in 1785 began a famous public dispute concerning the question whether or not Lessing had been a Spinozist, as Jacobi alleged Lessing had admitted to him shortly before his death in 1781. But Jacobi and Mendelssohn were both negatively disposed towards Spinoza. In On the Doctrine of Spinoza in Letters to Mr
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    Chapter Twelve. The Pyrrhonist’s Revenge
    In Kant and Skepticism, Princeton University Press. pp. 76-92. 2010.
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    Chapter Four. Kant’s Pyrrhonian Crisis
    In Kant and Skepticism, Princeton University Press. pp. 16-20. 2010.
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    Socrates' demand for definitions
    Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 31 1-47. 2006.
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    In the course of developing these historical points, this book also shows that Herder and his tradition are in many ways superior to dominant trends in more ...
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    Kant and Skepticism (edited book)
    Princeton University Press. 2009.
    This book puts forward a much-needed reappraisal of Immanuel Kant's conception of and response to skepticism, as set forth principally in the Critique of Pure Reason. It is widely recognized that Kant's theoretical philosophy aims to answer skepticism and reform metaphysics--Michael Forster makes the controversial argument that those aims are closely linked. He distinguishes among three types of skepticism: "veil of perception" skepticism, which concerns the external world; Humean skepticism, wh…Read more
  • Hegel’s Idea of a ‘Phenomenology of Spirit’
    Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 62 (1): 145-147. 1998.
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    Nietzsche on morality as a “sign language of the affects”
    Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (1-2): 165-188. 2017.
    This article argues that Nietzsche’s meta-ethics is basically a form of sentimentalism, but a form of sentimentalism that includes cognitive components in the sentiments that are involved. The article also ascribes to Nietzsche the more original position that the moral sentiments in question vary dramatically between historical periods, cultures, and even individuals, sometimes indeed to the point of becoming inverted between one case and another. Finally, the article also attributes to Nietzsch…Read more