•  4488
    Pranayamic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to contribute to a physiologic response characterized by the presence of decreased oxygen consumption, decreased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure, as well as increased theta wave amplitude in EEG recordings, increased parasympathetic activity accompanied by the experience of alertness and reinvigoration. The mechanism of how pranayamic breathing interacts with the nervous system affecting metabolism and au…Read more
  •  4417
    Self-Regulation of Breathing as a Primary Treatment for Anxiety
    with Molly W. Crawford, Vernon A. Barnes, and Kyler Harden
    Applied Pscyophysiology and Biofeedback 40 107-115. 2015.
    Understanding the autonomic nervous system and homeostatic changes associated with emotions remains a major challenge for neuroscientists and a fundamental prerequisite to treat anxiety, stress, and emotional disorders. Based on recent publications, the inter-relationship between respiration and emotions and the influence of respiration on autonomic changes, and subsequent widespread membrane potential changes resulting from changes in homeostasis are discussed. We hypothesize that reversing hom…Read more
  •  2439
    How Does the Body Affect the Mind? Role of Cardiorespiratory Coherence in the Spectrum of Emotions
    with Molly W. Crawford
    Advances in Mind-Body Medicine 29 (4): 1-13. 2015.
    The brain is considered to be the primary generator and regulator of emotions; however, afferent signals originating throughout the body are detected by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and brainstem, and, in turn, can modulate emotional processes. During stress and negative emotional states, levels of cardiorespiratory coherence (CRC) decrease, and a shift occurs toward sympathetic dominance. In contrast, CRC levels increase during more positive emotional states, and a shift occurs toward para…Read more
  •  1870
    MIND-BODY RESPONSE AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING STRESS AND MEDITATION: CENTRAL ROLE OF HOMEOSTASIS
    with Vernon A. Barnes and Molly W. Crawford
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 28 (4): 545-554. 2014.
    Stress profoundly impacts quality of life and may lead to various diseases and conditions. Understanding the underlying physiological and neurological processes that take place during stress and meditation techniques may be critical for effectively treating stress-related diseases. The article examines a hypothetical physiological homeostatic response that compares and contrasts changes in central and peripheral oscillations during stress and meditation, and relates these to changes in the auton…Read more
  •  842
    Etiology of phantom limb syndrome: Insights from a 3D default space consciousness model
    with Molly W. Crawford and Mike Jensen
    Medical Hypotheses 85 (2): 153-259. 2015.
    In this article, we examine phantom limb syndrome to gain insights into how the brain functions as the mind and how consciousness arises. We further explore our previously proposed consciousness model in which consciousness and body schema arise when information from throughout the body is processed by corticothalamic feedback loops and integrated by the thalamus. The parietal lobe spatially maps visual and non-visual information and the thalamus integrates and recreates this processed sensory i…Read more
  •  797
    One of the most compelling questions still unanswered in neuroscience is how consciousness arises. In this article, we examine visual processing, the parietal lobe, and contralateral neglect syndrome as a window into consciousness and how the brain functions as the mind and we introduce a mechanism for the processing of visual information and its role in consciousness. We propose that consciousness arises from integration of information from throughout the body and brain by the thalamus and that…Read more
  •  684
    How lateral inhibition and fast retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations create vision: A new hypothesis
    with Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, and Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro
    Medical Hypotheses 96 20-29. 2016.
    The role of the physiological processes involved in human vision escapes clarification in current literature. Many unanswered questions about vision include: 1) whether there is more to lateral inhibition than previously proposed, 2) the role of the discs in rods and cones, 3) how inverted images on the retina are converted to erect images for visual perception, 4) what portion of the image formed on the retina is actually processed in the brain, 5) the reason we have an after-image with antagon…Read more
  •  430
    Widespread depolarization during expiration: A source of respiratory drive?
    with Molly W. Crawford, Vernon A. Barnes, and Kyler Harden
    Medical Hypotheses 84 (1): 31-37. 2014.
    Respiration influences various pacemakers and rhythms of the body during inspiration and expiration but the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Understanding this phenomenon is important, as breathing disorders, breath holding, and hyperventilation can lead to significant medical conditions. We discuss the physiological modulation of heart rhythm, blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, EEG, and other changes observed during inspiration and expiration. We also correlate the intrace…Read more
  •  386
    Dynamic Change of Awareness during Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates
    with Vernon A. Barnes, David Dillard-Wright, Shivani Jerath, and Brittany Hamilton
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6 1-5. 2012.
    Recent fndings illustrate how changes in consciousness accommodated by neural correlates and plasticity of the brain advance a model of perceptual change as a function of meditative practice. During the mindbody response neural correlates of changing awareness illustrate how the autonomic nervous system shifts from a sympathetic dominant to a parasympathetic dominant state. Expansion of awareness during the practice of meditation techniques can be linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a netw…Read more
  •  331
    Augmentation of Mind-body Therapy and Role of Deep Slow Breathing
    with Vernon A. Barnes
    Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 1 1-7. 2009.
    Mind-body therapies have been shown to be effective in clinical treatment of disorders such as high blood pressure and stress. Significant differences in the effectiveness of mind–body therapies have been shown and a common link among the therapies has yet to be defined. This article overviews the role of slow rhythmic breathing in physiological as well as therapeutic effects of mind-body therapies. Slow deep breathing practice has important implications as it may underlie the basic mechanism th…Read more
  •  320
    Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Out-of-Body Experiences: Importance of Retinogeniculo-Cortical Oscillations
    with Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, and Mike Jensen
    World Journal of Neuroscience 6 287-302. 2016.
    Current research on the various forms of autoscopic phenomena addresses the clinical and neurological correlates of out-of-body experiences, autoscopic hallucinations,and heautoscopy. Yet most of this research is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging results and focuses predominantly on abnormal cortical activity. Previously we proposed that visual consciousness resulted from the dynamic retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations, such that the photoreceptors dynamically integrated with visua…Read more
  •  315
    The Dynamic Role of Breathing and Cellular Membrane Potentials in the Experience of Consciousness
    with Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, and Santiago Junca
    World Journal of Neuroscience 7 66-81. 2017.
    Understanding the mechanics of consciousness remains one of the most important challenges in modern cognitive science. One key step toward understanding consciousness is to associate unconscious physiological processes with subjective experiences of sensory, motor, and emotional contents. This article explores the role of various cellular membrane potential differences and how they give rise to the dynamic infrastructure of conscious experience. This article explains that consciousness is a body…Read more
  •  309
    Meditation Experiences, Self, and Boundaries of Consciousness
    with Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, and Mike Jensen
    International Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4 (1): 1-11. 2016.
    Our experiences with the external world are possible mainly through vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell providing us a sense of reality. How the brain is able to seamlessly integrate stimuli from our external and internal world into our sense of reality has yet to be adequately explained in the literature. We have previously proposed a three-dimensional unified model of consciousness that partly explains the dynamic mechanism. Here we further expand our model and include illustrations to pr…Read more
  •  185
    Functional representation of vision within the mind: A visual consciousness model based in 3D default space
    with Molly W. Crawford and Vernon A. Barnes
    Journal of Medical Hypotheses and Ideas 9 45-56. 2015.
    The human eyes and brain, which have finite boundaries, create a ‘‘virtual’’ space within our central nervous system that interprets and perceives a space that appears boundless and infinite. Using insights from studies on the visual system, we propose a novel fast processing mechanism involving the eyes, visual pathways, and cortex where external vision is imperceptibly processed in our brain in real time creating an internal representation of external space that appears as an external view. W…Read more
  •  178
    Mechanism of development of pre-eclampsia linking breathing disorders to endothelial dysfunction
    with Vernon A. Barnes and Hossam E. Fadel
    Medical Hypotheses 73 163-166. 2009.
    High blood pressure is an important component of pre-eclampsia. The underlying mechanism of development of hypertension in pre-eclampsia is complicated and still remains obscure. Several theories have been advanced including endothelial dysfunction, uteroplacental insufficiency leading to generalized vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Increased blood flow and pressure are thought to lead to capillary dilatation, which damages end-organ sites, leading to hy…Read more
  •  53
    Widespread Membrane Potential Changes and Cardiorespiratory Synchonization Involved in Anxiety and Sleep-Wake Transitions
    with Shannon M. Cearley and Mike Jensen
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 30 (4): 935-944. 2016.
    Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchroniz…Read more
  •  21
    Layers of human brain activity: a functional model based on the default mode network and slow oscillations
    with Molly W. Crawford
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9 1-5. 2015.
    The complex activity of the human brain makes it difficult to get a big picture of how the brain works and functions as the mind. We examine pertinent studies, as well as evolutionary and embryologic evidence to support our theoretical model consisting of separate but interactive layers of human neural activity. The most basic layer involves default mode network (DMN)activity and cardiorespiratory oscillations. We propose that these oscillations support other neural activity and cognitive proces…Read more
  •  20
    The Global Workspace Theory and Information Integration Theory are two of the most currently accepted consciousness models; however, these models do not address many aspects of conscious experience. We compare these models to our previously proposed consciousness model in which the thalamus fills-in processed sensory information from corticothalamic feedback loops within a proposed 3D default space, resulting in the recreation of the internal and external worlds within the mind. This 3D default …Read more
  •  16