•  138
    The paper proposes a process-based model for an ontology that encompasses the emergence of process systems generated by increasingly complex levels of organization. Starting with a division of processes into those that are persistent and those that are fleeting, the model builds through a series of exclusive and exhaustive disjunctions. The crucial distinction is between those persistent and cohesive systems that are energy wells, and those that are far-from-equilibrium. The latter are necessari…Read more
  •  42
    Describing the shapes of Fern leaves: A fractal geometrical approach
    Acta Biotheoretica 44 (2): 119-142. 1996.
    Fractal geometry offers a new approach to describing the morphology of fern leaves. Traditional morphology is based on the Euclidean concept of shape as an area defined by a boundary. This approach has not proven successful with fern leaves because they are so elaborate. Fractal geometry treats forms as relationships between parts rather than as areas. In fern fronds there are often constant relationships between parts. Four fractal methodologies for describing these relations within leaves are …Read more