My research is mainly in philosophy of science, and especially the ‘special sciences’ such as economics and biology. I have also written extensively on related themes in metaphysics, especially the notions of causation and causal explanation. These various strands connect when, for instance, analysing the use of statistical techniques to measure causation, or when analysing several other philosophical issues, including scientific progress, harm, innateness, and free will.

My primary interest is in how knowledge is produced in field sciences, i.e. in sciences outside the confines of the laboratory and unable to conduct shielded experiments. W…

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