Robert C Trundle received his PhD in Philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has been a member of the International Science & Common Sense Association and a corresponding member of the Catholic Academy of Sciences (USA). Also, he has been on the Advisory Board of Sensus Communis: Annuario di Logica Alectica, Ed by Rev Msgr Antonio Livi, PhD, Dean Emeritus of Philosophy at Pontificia Università Lateranense (Rome). The Editorial Board of the Journal for The Study of Religions and Ideologies awarded Dr Robert Trundle the 2014 International JSRI Prize in Philosophy for his invited article “America’s Religi…Read more
Robert C Trundle received his PhD in Philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He has been a member of the International Science & Common Sense Association and a corresponding member of the Catholic Academy of Sciences (USA). Also, he has been on the Advisory Board of Sensus Communis: Annuario di Logica Alectica, Ed by Rev Msgr Antonio Livi, PhD, Dean Emeritus of Philosophy at Pontificia Università Lateranense (Rome). The Editorial Board of the Journal for The Study of Religions and Ideologies awarded Dr Robert Trundle the 2014 International JSRI Prize in Philosophy for his invited article “America’s Religion and Religion in America,” which was published in a special issue sponsored by the US State Department. Further, in the series “Philosophy and Religion” of VIBS (Value Inquiry Book Series), Brill-Rodopi Publishers published Dr Trundle’s book Integrated Truth and Existential Phenomenology: A Thomistic Response to Iconic Anti-Realists in Science (2015). Dr Trundle has been an invited scholarly referee for the journals Laval théologique et philosophique (Université Laval), Philosophy of Science (American Philosophy of Science Assoc) and Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review (Official Journal of the Canadian Philosophical Assoc) as well as an invited evaluator for the Canadian Government’s most prestigious scholarly award: the Killam Research Fellowship (Canada’s Council for the Arts). Trundle’s scholarship includes the history of philosophy, philosophy of science and metaphysics with over sixty published works; leading to his invitation by physicist Dr Maria Falbo-Kenkel to speak on how natural theology is related logically to science at the Scientific Research Society of Sigma Xi. He is a Fellow at the Adler-Aquinas Institute as well as a former faculty member at the University of Colorado and Regis College (CS), and Northern Kentucky University. See both http://www.adler-aquinasinstitute.org/ and http://www.nku.edu/~trundle/
EVOLVING PHILOSOPHICAL VIEW:
By using a contemporary modal logic (e.g. to infer an event’s physical impossibility when there is no cause) and a phenomenology of observational consciousness (e.g. to avoid conundrums ranging from relativistic social constructions to the thesis of theory-dependent observation), a case is made for an Aristotelian-Thomistic perspective wherein scientific inquiry yields an historically increasing objective truth that presupposes a causal principle. The principle, as a common-sense alethic modality, is not only inferably true and avoids its Kantian reduction to a truthless synthetic-a priori metaphysics but also strictly implies a first cause which causally created human nature and Nature as they ought to be. So without any naturalistic fallacy, a naturalistic ethics is inferable from our psycho-biological nature since our nature is as it ought to be. And from this is-ought unifying ethics whose point is to fulfill our nature, our nature should be fulfilled by political policies that are also inferably true. In sum, scientific truths about our psycho-biological nature inform a naturalistic ethics whose truths, in turn, inform truths of politics. Politics is or should be the institutionalization of ethics, although this ethics in Thomistic thought ought to be strengthened by supernatural virtues that more ultimately fulfill our nature. The naturalistic ethics, politics, science and natural theology (a theology overlapping with a supernatural one) which are the subject at hand, however, are not only compatible but interrelated logically.
Fellow, The Adler-Aquinas Institute, starting 2013; Professor, Northern Kentucky University at Highland Heights — award-winning professor and promoted early to both a tenured associate and full professor 1987-2013; Affiliate Assistant Professor, Regis College at Colorado Springs 1982-86; Instructor, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs 1982-84; Graduate Teaching Assistant, University of Toledo, 1972-74; High school teacher with state certification in mathematics and English, Department of Education, Toledo Public Schools, Toledo, Ohio, part time.
Awarded Ohio State University scholarship; University of Toledo Graduate Teaching Assistantship; Rice University Fellowship; Outstanding Junior Professor for Scholarship and Teaching at Northern Kentucky University; Invited referee for the following journals — Philosophy of Science (Philosophy of Science Association), Laval Théologique et Philosophique (Laval Université), and Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review (official journal of the Canadian Philosophical Association); Elected to Advisory Board (comitato di redazione) of Sensus Communis: Annuario di Logica Aletica; Invited as an evaluator for Canada’s most prestigious scholarly award, the Killam Research Fellowship (directed by the Canada Council for the Arts); Marquis Who's Who in American Education; Marquis Who's Who in the Southwest; Who's Who Among American Teachers; Writer’s Directory (Gale Group), Directory of American Scholars (Gale); Contemporary Authors (Gale); Awarded the 2014 International JSRI Prize in Philosophy, by the Editorial Board of the Journal for The Study of Religions and Ideologies, for the invited article "America's Religion and Religion in America" in an issue sponsored by the US Department of State.
Include the Scientific Research Society of Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Phi Honor Society, New York Academy of Sciences, American Philosophical Association, Society for Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy, Federation of American Scientists, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Cooperating Member of the International Science & Commonsense Association, Corresponding Member — Catholic Academy of Science (USA)
Beyond Absurdity: The Philosophy of Albert Camus, with R. Puligandla (Lanham, MD: UPA/Rowman & Littlefield Pub, 1986).
Ancient Greek Philosophy: Its Development and Relevance to our Time (London: UK, Ashgate Publishing, Avebury Series in Philosophy, 1994).
Medieval Modal Logic and Science: Augustine on Scientific Truth and Thomas on its Impossibility Without a First Cause (Lanham, MD: UPA/Roman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999).
From Physics to Metaphysics: The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Philosophy (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers — The State University, 1999, 2nd edition, 2001; Abingdon Oxon, UK: Routledge, 2nd ed. starting July 5, 2017.
UFOs: Politics, God and Science — Philosophy on a Taboo Topic (Florence, Italy: European Press Academic Publishing, 2001).
Camus’ Answer: “No” to the Western Pharisees Who Impose Reason on Reality (Eastbourne, UK: Sussex Academic Press, 2002).
Is E.T. Here? No Politically But Yes Scientifically and Theologically (Victoria, Canada: EcceNova Editions, 2005).
A Theology of Science: From Science to Ethics to an Ethical Politics (Boca Raton: Brown Walker Press, 2007; 2nd ed. 2009).
Integrated Truth and Existential Phenomenology: A Thomistic Response to Iconic Anti-Realists in Science, Value Inquiry Book Series of Philosophy and Religion, Book 283 (Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill-Rodopi Publishers, 2015).
Consciousness and Being: From Being to Truth in the Thomistic Tradition (Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications — Wipf & Stock, 2018).
JOURNALS PUBLISHED IN:
Aquinas: Revista Internazionale di Filosofia (Pontificia Università Lateranense)
Augustinus: Revista Trimestral Publicada Por Los Padres Agustinos Recoletos
Bulletin Ind. Institute of the History of Medicine
Christian Perspectives on Science and Technology — The Institute for the Study of Christianity in an Age of Science and Technology (ISCAST)
Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology
Diálogos: Las Revistas Editadas Por Universidad de Puerto Rico
Epistemologia: Italian Journal for the Philosophy of Science
Ethics & Politics / Etica & Politica
Filosofia: International Journal of Philosophy
Journal for the Study of Religions & Ideologies
Journal of Business Ethics
Idealistic Studies: An International Philosophical Journal
Laval Théologique et Philosophique (Laval Universite)
Logique et Analyse: Belgium National Centre for Logical Investigation
Logos & Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology
Modern Schoolman: A Quarterly Journal of Philosophy
National Forum: Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi
Philosophy in Science — Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of the Specola Vaticana (Vatican Observatory) Papieska Akademia Teologiczna (Pontifical Academy of Theology) Kraków and Pachart Foundation Tucson
Res Publica — Belgium Institute of Political Science
Review Journal of Philosophy & Social Science
Science and Method: Journal for the Empirical Study of the Foundations of Science (The Netherlands)
Sensus Communis: An International Quarterly for Studies and Research on Alethic Logic
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism
Thought: A Review of Culture and Idea
"Physics and Phenomenology," invited for New Horizons in the Philosophy of Science, Ed. by Dr. David Lamb, Medical School, University of Birmingham (London: Ashgate Publishing Co, 1992) 66-86.
“America’s Religion Vs. Religion in America: A Philosophic Profile,” Religion, Culture & Ideology in America (Containing the Issue sponsored by US State Department), Ed. by Drs. Sandu and Mihaela Frunza, SCIRI and The Academic Society for the Research of Religions & Ideologies (Bucuresti: Tritonic Group Editorial, 2012) 9-27.
“A Thomistic Integration of Truth Vs. a Truthlessness of Today’s Science, Ethics & Politics,” Sztuka i realizm (Art and realism): Com-memorative Book, Jubilee Birthday and Scientific Work of Professor Henry Kieresia at Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski), Ed. by Fr. Tomasz Duma, Andrzej Maryniarczyk SDB and Paulina Sulenta (Lublin: Polish Society of St. Thomas Aquinas and the Faculty of Philosophy at the Catholic University of Lublin (KUL) 2014) 721-738.
According to several reviewers (some noted below), my views tend to be novel, provocative and diverse; although some of the views, surely, beg for an increased exactitude. My hope is that others, more able than I, will press on with some of the ideas --- especially ideas on how the proof of a first cause may interrelate truths of theology, science, ethics, art and politics. While it seems novel to say that politics should institutionalize a naturalistic ethics, the diversity bears on articles that range from “Women’s Fashion: Function of Sex or Social Construction?” in Cultura (2009) and one on “Global Ethnic Conflict” in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (1996) to “A First Cause & Causal Principle” in Philosophy in Science X (2003) and “Unidentified Flying Objects in Northern Kentucky” in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky (University Press of Kentucky, 2009). I have authored approximately sixty professional articles and books.
In regard to books, my first, Beyond Absurdity: The Philosophy of Albert Camus, written with R. Puligandla, relates Camus to Eastern thought, especially to Nâgârjuna. While the Nâgârjunian element continued in my next book on Camus, Camus' Answer: No to the Western Pharisees Who Impose Reason on Reality, the latter sought both to render compatible a realism with Eastern thought and to preserve an account of Camus’ rebellion against murderous ideologies of Western intellectuals. A Choice magazine book review stated, "A fine explanation of the various meanings of Camus' concept of the absurd. A useful introduction to Camus' thought." And a scholarly reviewer for Paragon House publishers praised the book by noting, “it is rather unique and represents a kind of scholarship that very view even try to, let alone succeed at, engage in. On the whole, the discussion of Camus is informative and is nicely connected both to Western philosophy and Eastern accents.”
My book Ancient Greek Philosophy: Its Development and Relevance to Our Time addresses a logical continuity of developing ideas of many Pre-Socratics, including Thales, Heraclitus, Parmenides, the Sophists and Atomists, through Plato and Aristotle. It considers how their ideas bear on perplexing ideas and dynamic events of our time. Today’s controversies, from ethics ignoring human nature to gender roles in the military and relativism in science, are discussed in sidebar columns. The columns consider enduring questions that relate, if not suggest prolific responses to, the controversies by Pre-Socratic notions of how metaphysics and physics interface, Plato's moral theory and Aristotle's unique insights on how ethics, art and politics are rooted in our psycho-biological nature. Dr. Ralph McInerny, Michael P. Grace Professor of Medieval Studies at the University of Notre Dame, stated, “The high level of historical and philosophical discussion is admirable, yet eminently accessible." And Professor Konstantine Boudouris, Chair of Philosophy at the University of Athens and Editor of The Greek Philosophical Review, who reviewed the book (below in Greek) stated that the book is “very important.”
In my next book Medieval Modal Logic and Science, I draw on the history of philosophy and philosophy of science to consider St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Augustine in terms of modal logic. Having its roots in Aristotle, this logic came to include modalities of necessity and possibility other than strictly logical ones. But due to cultural traumas of the scientific revolution and Reformation, I argue, those modalities were ignored at the dawn of modern philosophy. In their absence philosophers were unable to articulate how "truth" is ascribable to scientific theories, much less to a presupposed causal principle that, strictly implying a first cause, may render sound a cosmological proof. I seek to show how this proof and science are related logically — revealing that today’s creationism-evolution debates tend to commit a straw man fallacy by addressing a supernatural God as opposed to a God of Nature, although the two are compatible in my findings. My findings are applied to a revitalized naturalistic ethics, theology, science and politics. In regard to the politics etc being considered modally, my work was acknowledged by Dr. Julian Deahl, a notable European logician and Senior Editor at Brill, who stated "you need no introduction as I had come across some of your articles on scholastic logic (my own field)." And profound implications of the book were noted both by J. Roland Ramirez, PhD – Institut Catholique de Paris, who said “The many questions raised by Trundle are matters from which any present-day thinker… concerned with the present or future of any philosophy or of any science could seriously benefit” and by Dr. David Lamb of England's Birmingham Medical School who asserted that the book’s "range of case studies from geology and medical science to biology and physics... is first rate philosophy of science.”
In From Physics to Politics: The Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Philosophy, this philosophy is related to political ideology. The ideology stems in part from later Greek and medieval modal truths being confused with a truth-less metaphysics by modern philosophers, Yale University logician Ruth Barcan Marcus noting sardonically “No metaphysical mysteries.” The mysteries were exacerbated by modern philosophy since it tended to either replace "truth" by notions such as "verisimilitude" (Sir Karl Popper) or, earlier, hold that “truth” originates in superior men (fascism) and dominating classes (Marxism). Given an ensuing skepticism and predictable stress on practical applications of philosophy in order to avoid knotty epistemological problems (Marx famously stating that philosophy should not merely interpret the world but change it), "truth" was largely politicized via naked political ideology and a surreptitious political correctness. Popper, I note, did himself express grave concern about this irrationality leading to relativism. With respect to the relativism Peter Redpath states that I show how these events, which left over 100 million persons dead in the twentieth century, had the net effect of subordinating logic and science to ideological dreams: "Fascism, Nazism, Marxism, political correctness, and moral relativism are actually essential acts, not historical aberrations," adding that my work “is groundbreaking and daring with widespread ramifications. [Trundle’s] argument transcends the domains of logic and scientific method,” extending “to metaphysics and the history of philosophy.”
My most provocative works are those on extraterrestrial intelligence and unidentified flying objects (UFOs), including the book Is ET Here: No Politically But Yes Scientifically and Theologically. Nonetheless, Chair of the Philosophy Department at Tulane University (now Professor of Philosophy and Director of Humanities at the University of Colorado), Dr. Michael Zimmerman, stated, “With his knowledge of the philosophy of science, epistemology and logic,” Trundle erodes “the justifications used by many mainstream scientists, journalists and opinion-shapers when they ignore or attack credible testimony… of artificial flying objects not produced by human beings.” He adds, “This well-written book will appeal especially to those interested in a philosophically and technically sophisticated treatment." Indeed, the treatment relates to astonishing scientific advances, such as light-pulse experiments by NEC physicists at Princeton, that may soon bear on interstellar space travel in a relatively short time. If this timely travel may be feasible for us, the feasibility proceeds pari passu for more advanced non-human craft as well — rendering plausible reports of reliable witnesses and films of the phenomena that some leading scientists acknowledge, if not many major G8 governments. Taken with a Principle of Pessimistic Induction in the philosophy of science whereby reasoning inductively from past scientific theories indicates that superseding theories rendered possible alleged impossibilities, a reasonable pessimism is warranted about the absolute truth of any current theory that excludes the travel. In terms of the travel this principle does not mean that the theories are false but rather that their truth is restricted to various domains, as a domain of Newton is restricted to phenomena not approaching the speed of light and Planck’s constant being negligible. And so due to a limited domain of Einstein's theory (not that it necessarily excludes the travel possibility), pessimism is reasonable about the truth inter alia of a supposed speed-of-light barrier that excludes ET's presence. Coupled with witnesses, film, radar data, government documents released by the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and other evidence, a reasonable belief in the possible, if not likely, presence is supported. In virtue of this support’s influence, Fate magazine (published since 1948) generously named me one of the 100 most influential people in the world on the subject in 2005.
A Theology of Science: From Science to Ethics to an Ethical Politics suggests that a liberal epistemology and ontology of natural theology, if not a theology of traditional Judeo Christianity, creatively fosters novel ways for defending a strong scientific realism, not a mere reality of many theoretic entities but also for true laws or theories in terms of which the entities are understood. In understanding theories as conjunctive propositions composed of laws to which “truth” is ascribable, the ascriptions are initially rendered tenable by an epistemic modality whereby, despite Popper’s truth-functional conditional for alone falsifying theories, theories that make systematically true predictions in given domains strictly imply a truth of the theories: How can theories be entirely false when they systematically predict the phenomena? Unless the phenomena were reflected with approximate truth by the theories, how in principle could the theories predict the phenomena? And a notion that phenomena are theory-dependent wherein observational predictions cannot imply a theory’s truth since predictions presuppose theories (per Feyerabend, Kuhn, Popper etc) is avoided by a phenomenology of consciousness wherein we have a non-epistemic / non-conceptual consciousness of phenomena. Thus although observed phenomena may be theory laden, this does not obviate a limited observational truth by which the reasoning is tenable. Several tenable insights inspired by theology, permitting paradox or contradiction, bear on the philosophy of science in terms of an Underdetermination-of-Theory-by-Data (UTD) Thesis. The Thesis, used to undercut scientific realism, specifies that data afford logically inconsistent but empirically equivalent theories that equally predict or explicate the data. But this appeal to data is a false dilemma. For just as theology has perennially acknowledged logically inconsistent realities by virtue of there being no contradiction in saying that reality need not abide by the principle of non-contradiction, such as God being One and not One (Triune) or our existence being triune and not triune (one) per St. Augustine , the data may be composed of inconsistent predicates, as light may be a wave and non-wave (particle) per Victor de Broglie’s particle-wave equation . The point is that scientific realism mandates reasoning from reality to our ideas and not imposing ideas, even principles of logic, on reality. This realism is related to ethics. In The Review of Metaphysics (Sep 2008) Tom Michaud said, “This book is one of those exceptional works which is both challenging in its philosophical sophistication and edifying in its moral argumentation,” adding that “[Trundle] logically dismantles the problems, and then offers a strategy for correcting the course of science so that it can properly establish ethics and inform politics. His strategy succeeds brilliantly.” The strategy includes reasoning from a true causal principle, expressed as an alethic modality, to a first cause or creator who creates our psycho-biological nature as it should be. Leaning on scholars such as Peter Kreeft for this normative relation of a first cause to our nature, a naturalistic ethics may be inferred for fulfilling our nature with no naturalistic fallacy. The fallacy, accepted axiomatically by academics who construe Hume’s rants against religion as part of his “critical thought,” may not only be averted but also obstacles to inferring a moral politics that institutionalizes the ethics (ethical and political claims being as true as scientific descriptions of our psycho-biological nature that inform those claims). After praising the book, Peter Redpath cautions that it is bold and daring: “It is not for the faint-hearted. It pulls no punches. Trundle is not Dale Carnegie. Many academics will not like it since it accurately exposes them as charlatans in ways that are difficult, if not impossible, to refute.”
- See reference to the Choice review of my book Camus’ Answer at http://www.amazon.com. My scholarship in existential phenomenology stems from both my publications and having had the famous existentialist scholar and translator of Jean-Paul Sartre, Professor Emerita Hazel Barnes, as an advisor for my doctoral dissertation (Scientific Realism and Existential Phenomenology) noted in my book Camus’ Answer, p. 161, n. 21
- Email to Robert Trundle from Paragon editor Rosemary Byrne Yokoi with a reviewer’s comments that recommend publication (per Rosemary Byrne Yokoi firstname.lastname@example.org, Tuesday, October 9, 2001 7:46 AM). The offer of publication was declined since Sussex Academic Press had already accepted my book.
- Letter from Prof Ralph McInerny to Robert Trundle, 1 Feb 1994, on Ancient Greek Philosophy: Its Development & Relevance to Our Time, used in Trundle’s university performance review.
- Letter to R. Trundle on 3 Oct 1996, used in his performance review, from Prof Konstantine Boudouris — Editor, Greek Philosophical Review and Chair of Philosophy at the University of Athens. Boudouris’ review of the book can be viewed via “102. Βουδούρης, Κωνσταντῖνος Ἰωάν., «Trundle Robert C., “Ancient Philosophy”, Avebury Press, 1994, 328 p. » , Ἑλληνικὴ Φιλοσοφικὴ Ἐπιθεώρηση, 13, 38 (1996), σσ. 206-207” at http://www.kenef.phil.uoi.gr/dynamic/prometo.
- Email to Robert Trundle from Julian Deahl, Senior Acquisitions Editor of Brill Academic Publishers (Tuesday, September 22, 1998 1:53 AM).
- J. Roland Ramirez and David Lamb, Forewords, Medieval Modal Logic and Science, pp. ix-xii.
- Ruth Barcan Marcus, Modalities: Philosophical Essays (NY: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 69.
- Peter Redpath, Foreword, From Physics to Politics, pp. ix and x. Dr. Redpath is Professor of Philosophy at St. John’s University, a member of the Board of Trustees of the Institute for Advanced Philosophical Research, a panelist for the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, and a participant in the International Conference on Religious Liberty at the U.S. State Department by invitation of Secretary of State Elliot Abrams — to note only a few of his honors.
- Prof Michael Zimmerman in an email to author on 6/4/04 2:51 PM ("Michael Zimmerman" email@example.com) and quoted in Trundle’s book Is ET Here? following the copyright page.
- Besides Princeton and Stanford University scientists Robert Jahn and Peter Sturrock who support UFO investigations, among others, per reference to their publications by professors A. Wendt (Ohio State University) and R. Duvall (University of Minnesota) in “Sovereignty and the UFO,” Political Theory 36.4 (2008) 607-33 (http://ptx.sagepub.com/ cgi/content/refs/36/4/607), see also "UFO Researchers & People” by Bernard Haisch, PhD, DIRECTOR: California Institute for Physics and Astrophysics (1999-2002) and SCIENTIFIC EDITOR: Astrophysical Journal (1993-2002), http://www.ufoevidence.org/Researchers/Detail76.
- Fate magazine, May 2005. See the top 100 researchers at http://www. fatemag.com/2005UFOSpecialTop100. These 100 include retired nuclear physicist Stanton Friedman; Senior Research Scientist at NASA Dr. Richard Haines (ret) who worked on the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Space Station; NASA consultant Richard Hoagland; Engineer and Editor of Aviation Week & Space Technology Phil Klass; Optical Physicist and research scientist Dr. Bruce Maccabee who worked at the Naval Surface Warfare Center; and the 6th man to walk on the moon — Apollo Astronaut and Founder of the Noetic Sciences Institute, Edgar Mitchell (PhD in Aeronautics & Astronautics from MIT).
- St. Augustine, Confessions, Tr. R.S. Pine-Coffin (NY: Penguin Books, 1984), pp. 318, 319.
- See, for example, Israeli physicist Saul Youssef who states in the Proceedings of the New York Academy of Sciences that we must still conclude that light both is and is not a particle (wave) in “Is Quantum Mechanics An Exotic Probability Theory?” Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory: A Conference Held in Honor of Professor John A. Wheeler, Ed. by D.M Greenberger and A. Zeilinger (NY: Annals of the NYAS, 1995), p. 904. Youssef is augmented by S. Afshar, E. Flores, K. McDonald and E. Knoesel’s “Paradox in Wave-Particle Duality,” Foundations of Physics 37.2 (2007) 295-305, who refer to recent experiments whereby light at all times has both wave and non-wave (particle) aspects. Whether or not these aspects obtain, the point is that a liberal ontology and epistemology of theology/Scripture may inspire imaginative solutions in science — Einstein asserting famously that imagination is more important than knowledge, not to mention Harvard University physicist G. Holton et al in “How a Scientific Discovery is made,” American Scientist—Scientific Research Society of Sigma Xi 84 (1996) 36475, who found extra-scientific influences such as theology and religion “to be essential… in major advances throughout the history of science” — from K.A. Müller’s codiscovery of high-temperature superconductors being guided by a religio-philosophical symbol to virtually all others; Columbia University scientist R.K. Merton calling this influence the “Matthew Effect” (per the Book of Matthew 25:29).
- Tom Michaud, The Review of Metaphysics 62 (2008) #245, 162-4.
- Peter Redpath, “Foreword” in A Theology of Science, p. xi.