
368Tolerant, Classical, StrictJournal of Philosophical Logic 41 (2): 347385. 2012.In this paper we investigate a semantics for firstorder logic originally proposed by R. van Rooij to account for the idea that vague predicates are tolerant, that is, for the principle that if x is P, then y should be P whenever y is similar enough to x. The semantics, which makes use of indifference relations to model similarity, rests on the interaction of three notions of truth: the classical notion, and two dual notions simultaneously defined in terms of it, which we call tolerant truth and…Read more

156Reaching Transparent TruthMind 122 (488): 841866. 2013.This paper presents and defends a way to add a transparent truth predicate to classical logic, such that and A are everywhere intersubstitutable, where all Tbiconditionals hold, and where truth can be made compositional. A key feature of our framework, called STTT (for StrictTolerant Transparent Truth), is that it supports a nontransitive relation of consequence. At the same time, it can be seen that the only failures of transitivity STTT allows for arise in paradoxical cases

122Optimal assertions, and what they implicate. A uniform game theoretic approachTopoi 26 (1): 6378. 2007.To determine what the speaker in a cooperative dialog meant with his assertion, on top of what he explicitly said, it is crucial that we assume that the assertion he gave was optimal. In determining optimal assertions we assume that dialogs are embedded in decision problems (van Rooij 2003) and use backwards induction for calculating them (Benz 2006). In this paper, we show that in terms of our framework we can account for several types of implicatures in a uniform way, suggesting that there i…Read more

116Identity, Leibniz’s Law and NonTransitive ReasoningMetaphysica 14 (2): 253264. 2013.Arguments based on Leibniz's Law seem to show that there is no room for either indefinite or contingent identity. The arguments seem to prove too much, but their conclusion is hard to resist if we want to keep Leibniz's Law. We present a novel approach to this issue, based on an appropriate modification of the notion of logical consequence.

94Vagueness, Truth and Permissive ConsequenceIn Kentaro Fujimoto, José Martínez Fernández, Henri Galinon & Theodora Achourioti (eds.), Unifying the Philosophy of Truth, Springer Verlag. pp. 409430. 2015.We say that a sentence A is a permissive consequence of a set X of premises whenever, if all the premises of X hold up to some standard, then A holds to some weaker standard. In this paper, we focus on a threevalued version of this notion, which we call stricttotolerant consequence, and discuss its fruitfulness toward a unified treatment of the paradoxes of vagueness and selfreferential truth. For vagueness, stconsequence supports the principle of tolerance; for truth, it supports the requi…Read more

83Revealed preference and satisficing behaviorSynthese 179 (S1). 2011.A much discussed topic in the theory of choice is how a preference order among options can be derived from the assumption that the notion of ' choice' is primitive. Assuming a choice function that selects elements from each finite set of options, Arrow (Económica 26: 121127,1959) already showed how we can generate a weak ordering by putting constraints on the behavior of such a function such that it reflects utility maximization. Arrow proposed that rational agents can be modeled by such choice…Read more

80Tolerance and Mixed Consequence in the S'valuationist SettingStudia Logica 100 (4): 855877. 2012.In a previous paper (see ‘Tolerant, Classical, Strict’, henceforth TCS) we investigated a semantic framework to deal with the idea that vague predicates are tolerant, namely that small changes do not affect the applicability of a vague predicate even if large changes do. Our approach there rests on two main ideas. First, given a classical extension of a predicate, we can define a strict and a tolerant extension depending on an indifference relation associated to that predicate. Second, we can us…Read more

71Language Structure: Psychological and Social ConstraintsSynthese 159 (1). 2007.In this article we discuss the notion of a linguistic universal, and possible sources of such invariant properties of natural languages. In the first part, we explore the conceptual issues that arise. In the second part of the paper, we focus on the explanatory potential of horizontal evolution. We particularly focus on two case studies, concerning Zipf's Law and universal properties of color terms, respectively. We show how computer simulations can be employed to study the large scale, emergent…Read more

61Pragmatic Meaning and NonMonotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive InterpretationLinguistics and Philosophy 29 (2). 2006.In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984). We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy's (1980, 1986) predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, wellknown from work on counterfactuals (see for instance Lewis (1973)). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent develo…Read more

59New Perspectives on Games and Interactions (edited book)Amsterdam University Press. 2008.This volume is a collection of papers presented at the colloquium, and it testifies to the growing importance of game theory as a tool that can capture concepts ...

58Exhaustive interpretation of complex sentencesJournal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4): 491519. 2004.In terms of Groenendijk and Stokhofs (1984) formalization of exhaustive interpretation, many conversational implicatures can be accounted for. In this paper we justify and generalize this approach. Our justification proceeds by relating their account via Halpern and Moses (1984) nonmonotonic theory of only knowing to the Gricean maxims of Quality and the first submaxim of Quantity. The approach of Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984) is generalized such that it can also account for implicatures that…Read more

57The principle of stability now says that if sentence ϕ is true/false in a model M, then ϕ has to stay true/false if M is getting more precise. Formally, let M = D, I be a refinement of M = D, I . Then it has to be the case that for all ϕ: (i) If VM(ϕ) = 1, then VM (ϕ) = 1. (ii) If VM(ϕ) = 0, then VM (ϕ) = 0.

57Pragmatic Interpretations of Vague Expressions: Strongest Meaning and Nonmonotonic ConsequenceJournal of Philosophical Logic 44 (4): 375393. 2015.Recent experiments have shown that naive speakers find borderline contradictions involving vague predicates acceptable. In Cobreros et al. we proposed a pragmatic explanation of the acceptability of borderline contradictions, building on a threevalued semantics. In a reply, Alxatib et al. show, however, that the pragmatic account predicts the wrong interpretations for some examples involving disjunction, and propose as a remedy a semantic analysis instead, based on fuzzy logic. In this paper we…Read more

55Conditionals, Causality and Conditional ProbabilityJournal of Logic, Language and Information 28 (1): 5571. 2018.The appropriateness, or acceptability, of a conditional does not just ‘go with’ the corresponding conditional probability. A condition of dependence is required as well. In this paper a particular notion of dependence is proposed. It is shown that under both a forward causal and a backward evidential reading of the conditional, this appropriateness condition reduces to conditional probability under some natural circumstances. Because this is in particular the case for the socalled diagnostic re…Read more

50Pragmatic value and complex sentencesMind and Matter 4 (2): 195218. 2006.We investigate to what extent it is possible to determine a reasonable default pragmatic value of complex sentences in a compositional manner, and when combined with a Boolean semantics to see under which conditions it gives rise to reasonable predictions. We discuss several notions of pragmatic value, or relevance, and compare their behavior over complex sentences. Although the goaloriented notions of relevance give rise to the same ordering relations between propositions,the conditions un…Read more

44GameTheoretic Pragmatics Under Conflicting and Common InterestsErkenntnis 152. 2013.This paper combines a survey of existing literature in gametheoretic pragmatics with new models that fill some voids in that literature. We start with an overview of signaling games with a conflict of interest between sender and receiver, and show that the literature on such games can be classified into models with direct, costly, noisy and imprecise signals. We then argue that this same subdivision can be used to classify signaling games with common interests, where we fill some voids in the l…Read more

43Generics and typicality: a bounded rationality approachLinguistics and Philosophy 43 (1): 83117. 2020.Cimpian et al. observed that we accept generic statements of the form ‘Gs are f’ on relatively weak evidence, but that if we are unfamiliar with group G and we learn a generic statement about it, we still treat it inferentially in a much stronger way: all Gs are f. This paper makes use of notions like ‘representativeness’, ‘contingency’ and ‘relative difference’ from psychology to provide a uniform semantics of generics that explains why people accept generics based on weak evidence. The spirit …Read more

40Foreword: Threevalued logics and their applicationsJournal of Applied NonClassical Logics 24 (12): 111. 2014.

39Tolerant reasoning: nontransitive or nonmonotonic?Synthese 199 (Suppl 3): 681705. 2017.The principle of tolerance characteristic of vague predicates is sometimes presented as a soft rule, namely as a default which we can use in ordinary reasoning, but which requires care in order to avoid paradoxes. We focus on two ways in which the tolerance principle can be modeled in that spirit, using special consequence relations. The first approach relates tolerant reasoning to nontransitive reasoning; the second relates tolerant reasoning to nonmonotonic reasoning. We compare the two approa…Read more

38Natural kinds and dispositions: a causal analysisSynthese 198 (Suppl 12): 30593084. 2019.Objects have dispositions. Dispositions are normally analyzed by providing a meaning to disposition ascriptions like ‘This piece of salt is soluble’. Philosophers like Carnap, Goodman, Quine, Lewis and many others have proposed analyses of such disposition ascriptions. In this paper we will argue with Quine that the proper analysis of ascriptions of the form ‘x is disposed to m ’, where ‘x’ denotes an object, ‘m’ a manifestation, and ‘C’ a condition, goes like this: ‘x is of natural kind k’, and…Read more

35Identity, Leibniz's Law and Nontransitive ReasoningMetaphysica 14 (2): 253264. 2013.Arguments based on Leibniz's Law seem to show that there is no room for either indefinite or contingent identity. The arguments seem to prove too much, but their conclusion is hard to resist if we want to keep Leibniz's Law. We present a novel approach to this issue, based on an appropriate modification of the notion of logical consequence.

31Inferences and Metainferences in STJournal of Philosophical Logic 49 (6): 10571077. 2020.In a recent paper, Barrio, Tajer and Rosenblatt establish a correspondence between metainferences holding in the stricttolerant logic of transparent truth ST+ and inferences holding in the logic of paradox LP+. They argue that LP+ is ST+’s external logic and they question whether ST+’s solution to the semantic paradoxes is fundamentally different from LP+’s. Here we establish that by parity of reasoning, ST+ can be related to LP+’s dual logic K3+. We clarify the distinction between internal and…Read more

29A Causal Power Semantics for Generic SentencesTopoi 40 (1): 131146. 2019.Many generic sentences express stable inductive generalizations. Stable inductive generalizations are typically true for a causal reason. In this paper we investigate to what extent this is also the case for the generalizations expressed by generic sentences. More in particular, we discuss the possibility that many generic sentences of the form ‘ks have feature e’ are true because kind k have the causal power to ‘produce’ feature e. We will argue that such an analysis is quite close to a probabi…Read more

27Explaining Quantity ImplicaturesJournal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4): 461477. 2012.We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are gametheoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the s…Read more

27Optimalitytheoretic and gametheoretic approaches to implicatureStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008.

26Explaining Quantity ImplicaturesJournal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4): 461477. 2012.We give derivations of two formal models of Gricean Quantity implicature and strong exhaustivity in bidirectional optimality theory and in a signalling games framework. We show that, under a unifying model based on signalling games, these interpretative strategies are gametheoretic equilibria when the speaker is known to be respectively minimally and maximally expert in the matter at hand. That is, in this framework the optimal strategy for communication depends on the degree of knowledge the s…Read more

23Review of Joseph Almog, Paolo Leonardi (eds.), The Philosophy of David Kaplan (review)Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (9). 2009.

22Towards a uniform analysis of anyNatural Language Semantics 16 (4): 297315. 2008.In this paper, Universal any and Negative Polarity Item any are uniformly analyzed as ‘counterfactual’ donkey sentences (in disguise). Their difference in meaning is reduced here to the distinction between strong and weak readings of donkey sentences. It is shown that this explains the universal and existential character of Universal and NPIany, respectively, and the positive and negative contexts in which they are licensed. Our uniform analysis extends to the use of any in command and permiss…Read more
Areas of Specialization
Science, Logic, and Mathematics 
Metaphysics and Epistemology 
Areas of Interest
Science, Logic, and Mathematics 
Metaphysics and Epistemology 