Nord University
  •  5
    A critical note on sporting supererogation
    Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (2): 247-261. 2021.
    Alfred Archer recently argued that there is good reason to think that sporting supererogation exists. In the present paper, I take a closer look at Archer’s two key cases from association football...
  •  2
    Leder
    with Kjersti Fjørtoft
    Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 46 (1): 4-5. 2011.
  •  23
    What Is Sport?
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 15 (3): 308-330. 2020.
    In this paper, I am going to present a condensed version of my theory of what sport is from my book The Philosophy of Football. In that work, I took my starting point in Bernard Suits’ celebrated,...
  •  32
    Suits’ Utopia and Human Sports
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 13 (3-4): 432-455. 2019.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, I consider Bernard Suits’ Utopia where the denizens supposedly fill their days playing Utopian sports, with regard to the relevance of the thought experiment for understand...
  •  274
  •  14
    Ryktenes og sladderens pragmatikk
    Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 46 (1): 49-58. 2011.
    In this paper I address the topics of the pragmatics of rumours and gossip, on the one hand, and the question of unwarranted questions, on the other. I briefly introduce the case of Bill Clinton who got asked by the press about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky, before I turn to an analysis of rumours and gossip. Sometimes lack of openness gives rise to rumours and gossip, while other times it is enough that something is mentioned for it to give rise to rumours and gossip. In the last part o…Read more
  •  11
    Tranöys dilemma
    Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 43 (3): 257-259. 2008.
  •  565
    Defending the Martian Argument
    Disputatio 1 (20). 2006.
    The Chomskian holds that the grammars that linguists produce are about human psycholinguistic structures, i.e. our mastery of a grammar, our linguistic competence. But if we encountered Martians whose psycholinguistic processes differed from ours, but who nevertheless produced sentences that are extensionally equivalent to the set of sentences in our English and shared our judgements on the grammaticality of various English sentences, then we would count them as being competent in English. A gra…Read more
  •  542
    A Modal Defence of Strong AI
    In Dermot Moran Stephen Voss (ed.), The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy, The Philosophical Society of Turkey. pp. 127-131. 2007.
    John Searle has argued that the aim of strong AI of creating a thinking computer is misguided. Searle’s Chinese Room Argument purports to show that syntax does not suffice for semantics and that computer programs as such must fail to have intrinsic intentionality. But we are not mainly interested in the program itself but rather the implementation of the program in some material. It does not follow by necessity from the fact that computer programs are defined syntactically that the implementatio…Read more
  •  45
    In defense of the received view
    Philosophical Psychology 26 (6). 2013.
    In the paper, I present Christopher Gauker's critique of the view that we talk to each other as a way to make ourselves understood (the received view of linguistic communication) and his alternative theory. I show that both his critique and his alternative fail, and defend the received view of linguistic communication
  •  202
    Conversational implicatures and cancellability
    Acta Analytica 24 (2): 149-154. 2009.
    In this paper I argue against a criticism by Matthew Weiner to Grice’s thesis that cancellability is a necessary condition for conversational implicature. I argue that the purported counterexamples fail because the supposed failed cancellation in the cases Weiner presents is not meant as a cancellation but as a reinforcement of the implicature. I moreover point out that there are special situations in which the supposed cancellation may really work as a cancellation.
  •  59
    An Agon Aesthetics of Football
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 9 (2): 97-123. 2015.
    In this article, I first address the ethical considerations about football and show that a meritocratic-fairness view of sports fails to capture the phenomenon of football. Fairness of result is not at centre stage in football. Football is about the drama, about the tension and the emotions it provokes. This moves us to the realm of aesthetics. I reject the idea of the aesthetics of football as the disinterested aesthetic appreciation, which traditionally has been deemed central to aesthetics. I…Read more
  •  87
    The myth of self-deception
    Southern Journal of Philosophy 41 (1): 1-28. 2003.
  •  92
    Horwich on Natural and Non-Natural Meaning
    Acta Analytica 29 (2): 229-253. 2014.
    Paul Horwich’s Use Theory of Meaning (UTM) depends on his rejection of Paul Grice’s distinction between natural and non-natural meaning and his Univocality of Meaning Thesis, as he wishes to deflate the meaning-relation to usage. Horwich’s programme of deflating the meaning-relation (i.e. how words, sentences, etc., acquire meaning) to some basic regularity of usage cannot be carried through if the meaning-relation depends on the minds of users. Here, I first give a somewhat detailed account of …Read more
  •  17
    A Modal Defence of Strong AI
    The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 6 127-131. 2007.
    John Searle has argued that the aim of strong AI to create a thinking computer is misguided. Searle's "Chinese Room Argument" purports to show that syntax does not suffice for semantics and that computer programs as such must fail to have intrinsic intentionality But we are not mainly interested in the program itself, but rather the implementation of the program in some material. It does not follow by necessity from the fact that computer programs are defined syntactically that the implementatio…Read more
  •  394
    Communication, Conflict and Cooperation
    ProtoSociology 29. 2012.
    According to Steven Pinker and his associates the cooperative model of human communication fails, because evolutionary biology teaches us that most social relationships, including talk-exchange, involve combinations of cooperation and conflict. In particular, the phenomenon of the strategic speaker who uses indirect speech in order to be able to deny what he meant by a speech act (deniability of conversational implicatures) challenges the model. In reply I point out that interlocutors can aim at…Read more
  •  72
    Stanley on the Knowledge-Relation
    SATS 9 (1): 109-124. 2008.
    The latest newcomer on the epistemology scene is Subject-Sensitive Invariantism (SSI), which is the view that even though the semantics of the verb “know” is invariant, the answer to the question of whether someone knows something is sensitive to factors about that person. Factors about the context of the purported knower are relevant to whether he knows some proposition p or not. In this paper I present Jason Stanley's version of SSI, a theory Stanley calls Interest-Relative Invariantism (IRI).…Read more
  •  29
    A Call for a Possible World Argument in Ethics
    Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 19 (1): 105-117. 2000.
  •  36
    Talking to Infants: A Gricean Perspective
    American Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4): 423. 2013.
    According to Paul Grice, when we address someone, we intend to make ourselves understood, partly by the addressee’s recognition of that intention. Call this set of nested audience-directed intentions an M-intention. The standard Gricean analysis of speaker’s meaning goes as follows: “U meant something by uttering x” is true iff, for some audience A, U uttered x intending: (1) A to produce a particular response r (2) A to think (recognize) that U intends (1) (3) A to fulfill (1) on the basis of h…Read more
  •  48
    Intentions and Compositionality
    Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 39 13-19. 2008.
    It has been argued that philosophers that base their theories of meaning on communicative intentions and language conventions cannot accommodate the fact that natural languages are compositional. In this paper I show that if we pay careful attention to Grice’s notion of “resultant procedures” we see that this is not the case. The argument, if we leave out all the technicalities, is fairly simple. Resultant procedures tell you how to combine utterance parts, like words, into larger units, like se…Read more
  •  48
    The word of others
    Journal of Applied Logic 1 (1-2): 107-118. 2003.
    Tyler Burge has argued that one has an a priori prima facie entitlement to believe in the truth of what one takes to have been presented as true by an interlocutor. This thesis, however, is problematic, since the alleged a priori prima facie entitlement to believe in the truth of our seeming understanding of things presented as true to us, rests on the possibility of determining assertoric force on a purely intellectual basis. This thesis is not plausible and Burge's analogy from memory does not…Read more
  •  32
    Sport Records Are Social Facts
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 9 (4): 351-362. 2015.
    In this paper I address the topic of sport records and concentrate on the ontology of sport records. I argue that sport records are social facts in the sense that sport records not only depend on the physical facts of sport competitions, but also on the attitude we take towards the phenomenon—our attitude is partly constitutive of the phenomenon of sport records. In particular, the Mieto–Wassberg incident and the Larsson–McKee incident show that performance records should also be regarded as soc…Read more
  •  52
    Watching Sport: Aesthetics, Ethics and Emotion
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 6 (3): 401-406. 2012.
    Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, Volume 6, Issue 3, Page 401-406, August 2012
  •  79
    Intentions and Compositionality
    SATS 10 (1): 100-106. 2009.
    It has been argued that philosophers that base their theories of meaning on communicative intentions and language conventions cannot accommodate the fact that natural languages are compositional. In this paper I show that if we pay careful attention to Grice's notion of “resultant procedures” we see that this is not the case. The argument, if we leave out all the technicalities, is fairly simple. Resultant procedures tell you how to combine utterance parts, like words, into larger units, like se…Read more
  •  1245
    Communication, Cooperation and Conflict
    ProtoSociology 29 223-241. 2012.
    According to Steven Pinker and his associates the cooperative model of human communication fails, because evolutionary biology teaches us that most social relationships, including talk-exchange, involve combinations of cooperation and conflict. In particular, the phenomenon of the strategic speaker who uses indirect speech in order to be able to deny what he meant by a speech act (deniability of conversational implicatures) challenges the model. In reply I point out that interlocutors can aim at…Read more
  •  76
    Unwarranted questions and conversation
    Journal of Pragmatics 39 (10): 1689-1701. 2007.
    This paper deals with two distinct topics; unwarranted questions and admittures. The traditional speech act analysis of questions needs revision, since among the felicity conditions of asking a question is believing that the question is warranted. Some questions are unwarranted according to my analysis. A question is unwarranted if the questioner is not standing in the right relation to the addressee, such that he can demand or expect a sincere answer. I use the idea of unwarranted questions to …Read more