•  4
    Children’s beliefs about causes of human characteristics: Genes, environment, or choice?
    with Meredith Meyer, Steven O. Roberts, and Toby E. Jayaratne
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. forthcoming.
  •  25
    Who am I? The role of moral beliefs in children's and adults' understanding of identity
    with Larisa Heiphetz, Nina Strohminger, and Liane L. Young
    Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 210-219. 2018.
    Adults report that moral characteristics—particularly widely shared moral beliefs—are central to identity. This perception appears driven by the view that changes to widely shared moral beliefs would alter friendships and that this change in social relationships would, in turn, alter an individual's personal identity. Because reasoning about identity changes substantially during adolescence, the current work tested pre- and post-adolescents to reveal the role that such changes could play in mora…Read more
  •  7
    Ownership Matters: People Possess a Naïve Theory of Ownership
    with Shaylene E. Nancekivell and Ori Friedman
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences 23 (2): 102-113. 2019.
  •  14
    The role of group norms in evaluating uncommon and negative behaviors
    with Steven O. Roberts and Arnold K. Ho
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148 (2): 374-387. 2019.
  •  2
    How does “emporiophobia” develop?
    with Margaret Echelbarger and Charles W. Kalish
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41. 2018.
  •  1
    Does this Smile Make me Look White? Exploring the Effects of Emotional Expressions on the Categorization of Multiracial Children
    with Steven O. Roberts, Kerrie C. Leonard, and Arnold K. Ho
    Journal of Cognition and Culture 17 (3-4): 218-231. 2017.
    Previous research shows that Multiracial adults are categorized as more Black than White, especially when they have angry facial expressions. The present research examined the extent to which these categorization patterns extended to Multiracial children, with both White and Black participants. Consistent with past research, both White and Black participants categorized Multiracial children as more Black than White. Counter to what was found with Multiracial adults in previous research, emotiona…Read more
  •  5
    Children’s and Adults’ Intuitions about Who Can Own Things
    with Nicholaus S. Noles, Frank C. Keil, and Paul Bloom
    Journal of Cognition and Culture 12 (3-4): 265-286. 2012.
  •  10
    Picasso Paintings, Moon Rocks, and Hand-Written Beatles Lyrics: Adults' Evaluations of Authentic Objects
    with Brandy Frazier, Bruce Hood, and Alice Wilson
    Journal of Cognition and Culture 9 (1-2): 1-14. 2009.
  •  20
  •  9
    Lessons learned: Young children’s use of generic-you to make meaning from negative experiences
    with Ariana Orvell and Ethan Kross
    Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 148 (1): 184-191. 2019.
  •  13
    Young children’s preference for unique owned objects
    with Natalie S. Davidson
    Cognition 155 146-154. 2016.
  •  7
    Different kinds of concepts and different kinds of words: What words do for human cognition
    with Sandra Waxman
    In Denis Mareschal, Paul Quinn & Stephen E. G. Lea (eds.), The Making of Human Concepts, Oxford University Press. pp. 101--130. 2010.
  •  68
  •  60
  •  3
    The inherence heuristic: a basis for psychological essentialism?
    with Merdith Meyer
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (5): 490-490. 2014.
    Cimpian & Salomon provide evidence that psychological essentialism rests on a domain-general attention to inherent causes. We suggest that the inherence heuristic may itself be undergirded by a more foundational cognitive bias, namely, a realist assumption about environmental regularities. In contrast, when considering specific representations, people may be more likely to activate attention to non-inherent, contingent, and historical links.
  •  64
    Artifacts and Essentialism
    Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3): 449-463. 2013.
    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity an…Read more
  •  17
    Causal status effect in children's categorization
    with Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Jennifer A. Amsterlaw, Jill Hohenstein, and Charles W. Kalish
    Cognition 76 (2). 2000.
  •  51
    Dirty Money: The Role of Moral History in Economic Judgments
    with Arber Tasimi
    Cognitive Science 41 (S3). 2017.
    Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history. Experiments 3–5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequ…Read more
  • Preschool Children's Use of Trait Labels to Make Inductive Inferences
    with Gail D. Heyman
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 77 1-19. 2000.
  •  23
    Two insights about naming in the preschool child
    In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents, Oxford University Press New York. pp. 198--215. 2005.
    This chapter examines associationist models of cognitive development, focusing on the development of naming in young children — the process by which young children learn of construct the meanings of words and concepts. It presents two early-emerging insights that children possess about the nature of naming. These insights are: essentialism: certain words map onto nonobvious, underlying causal features, and genericity: certain expressions map onto generic kinds as opposed to particular instances.…Read more
  •  16
    History and essence in human cognition
    with Meredith A. Meyer and Nicholaus S. Noles
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2). 2013.
    Bullot & Reber (B&R) provide compelling evidence that sensitivity to context, history, and design stance are crucial to theories of art appreciation. We ask how these ideas relate to broader aspects of human cognition. Further open questions concern how psychological essentialism contributes to art appreciation and how essentialism regarding created artifacts (such as art) differs from essentialism in other domains
  •  27
    Children and adults commonly produce more generic noun phrases (e.g., birds fly) about animals than artifacts. This may reflect differences in participants’ generic knowledge about specific animals/artifacts (e.g., dogs/chairs), or it may reflect a more general distinction. To test this, the current experiments asked adults and preschoolers to generate properties about novel animals and artifacts (Experiment 1: real animals/artifacts; Experiments 2 and 3: matched pairs of maximally similar, nove…Read more
  •  35
    So It Is, So It Shall Be: Group Regularities License Children's Prescriptive Judgments
    with Steven O. Roberts and Arnold K. Ho
    Cognitive Science 41 (S3). 2017.
    When do descriptive regularities become prescriptive norms? We examined children's and adults' use of group regularities to make prescriptive judgments, employing novel groups that engaged in morally neutral behaviors. Participants were introduced to conforming or non-conforming individuals. Children negatively evaluated non-conformity, with negative evaluations declining with age. These effects were replicable across competitive and cooperative intergroup contexts and stemmed from reasoning abo…Read more
  • Children's Use of Sample Size and Diversity Information within Basic-Level Categories
    with Grant Gutheil
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 64 159-174. 1997.
  •  30
    A cross-linguistic comparison of generic noun phrases in English and Mandarin
    with Twila Tardif
    Cognition 66 (3): 215-248. 1998.
    Generic noun phrases (e.g. 'bats live in caves') provide a window onto human concepts. They refer to categories as 'kinds rather than as sets of individuals. Although kind concepts are often assumed to be universal, generic expression varies considerably across languages. For example, marking of generics is less obligatory and overt in Mandarin than in English. How do universal conceptual biases interact with language-specific differences in how generics are conveyed? In three studies, we examin…Read more
  •  27
    The role of covariation versus mechanism information in causal attribution
    with Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles W. Kalish, and Douglas L. Medin
    Cognition 54 (3): 299-352. 1995.