• Linguistic meaning underdetermines what is said. This has consequences for philosophical accounts of meaning, communication, and propositional attitude reports. I argue that the consequence we should endorse is that utterances typically express many propositions, that these are what speakers mean, and that the correct semantics for attitude reports will handle this fact while being relational and propositional.
  • Propositions as interpreted abstracta
    In Chris Tillman (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Propositions, Routledge. forthcoming.
    Neo-Russellians claim that propositions can be modelled by tuples. A common view is that propositions cannot be tuples. I argue that the interpretivist account of propositions developed by Jeffrey C. King can be adapted for the tuple view.
  • Sentences in context have semantic contents determined by a range of factors both internal and external to speakers. I argue against the thesis that semantic content is transparent to speakers in the sense of being immediately accessible to speakers in virtue of their linguistic competence.
  • Russellians can have a no proposition view of empty names
    Inquiry : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 1-22. forthcoming.
    Russellians can have a no proposition view of empty names. I will defend this theory against the problem of meaningfulness, and show that the theory is in general well motivated. My solution to the problem of meaningfulness is that speakers’ judgements about meaningfulness are tracking grammaticality, and not propositional content.
  • Propositions (review)
    International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (4): 585-587. 2016.
  • Jeffrey C. King, Scott Soames, Jeff Speaks, New Thinking about Propositions (review)
    Polish Journal of Philosophy 8 (2): 80-83. 2014.
  • Propositions, Structure and Representation
    Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 112 (3pt3): 339-349. 2012.
    Neo-Russellian theories of structured propositions face challenges to do with both representation and structure which are sometimes called the problem of unity and the Benacerraf problem. In §i, I set out the problems and Jeffrey King's solution, which I take to be the best of its type, as well as an unfortunate consequence for that solution. In §§ii–iii, I diagnose what is going wrong with this line of thought. If I am right, it follows that the Benacerraf problem cannot be used to motivate the…Read more
  • Propositions: An Essay on Linguistic Content
    Dissertation, St Andrews. 2013.
    This thesis presents an account of the nature of structured propositions and addresses a series of questions that arise from that proposal. Chapter 1 presents the account and explains how it meets standard objections to such views. Chapter 2 responds to the objection that this version of propositionalism is really a form of sententialism by arguing for the distinct advantages of the propositionalist view. Chapter 3 argues against a closely related view of propositions by way of general principle…Read more
  • Why we should not identify sentence structure with propositional structure
    Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (5-6): 612-633. 2013.
    It is a common view among philosophers of language that both propositions and sentences are structured objects. One obvious question to ask about such a view is whether there is any interesting connection between these two sorts of structure. The author identifies two theses about this relationship. Identity (ID) – the structure of a sentence and the proposition it expresses are identical. Determinism (DET) – the structure of a sentence determines the structure of the proposition it expresses. A…Read more
  • Underdeterminacy & Attitude-reports
    UCL Working Papers in Linguistics. 2011.
    In this paper I examine an argument that there is a serious tension between the claim that for natural languages linguistic meaning underdetermines what is said and the relational analysis of attitude-reports. I conclude that it is possible to avoid the tension by adopting a pluralism about meaning and expression.