Institute of Philosophy, Czech Academy of Sciences
  •  311
    Thoughtful Brutes
    Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 19 70-82. 2012.
    Donald Davidson and John Searle famously differ, among other things, on the issue of animal thoughts. Davidson seems to be a latter-day Cartesian, denying any propositional thought to subhuman animals, while Searle seems to follow Hume in claiming that if we have thoughts, then animals do, too. Davidson’s argument centers on the idea that language is necessary for thought, which Searle rejects. The paper argues two things. Firstly, Searle eventually argues that much of a more complex thought doe…Read more
  •  169
    N. Goodman, Jazyky umění: Nástin teorie symbolů (review)
    Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 15 (2): 273-278. 2008.
    A review of the Czech translation of Nelson Goodman's Languages of Art. I emphasize Goodman's move away from the issue of the definition of art, and the fruitfulness of the autographic/allographic distinction.
  •  165
    Mají zvířata vědomí?
    Filosoficky Casopis 64 (1): 3-22. 2016.
    [Do Animals Have Consciousness?] The study analyses the arguments of contemporary philosophers of mind concerning the subject of animal consciousness. The first part reminds the reader of the Cartesian starting point of the contemporary discussion and points to the concept of phenomenal consciousness as the main point of contention concerning the instantiation of consciousness in non-human animals. The second part of the study analyses various forms of representationalism which make up the mains…Read more
  •  141
    Etika lidského vylepšování a liberální eugenika
    Filosoficky Casopis 62 (6): 847-861. 2014.
    [The Ethics of Human Enhancement and Liberal Eugenics] The paper deals with the ethics of biotechnological enhancement of human qualities such as intelligence, health and lifespan. In contemporary bioethics three views have emerged concerning the moral permissibility of such a biotechnological enhancement of humans. While bioconservatives reject it as morally impermissible and dangerous, bioradicals welcome it as permissible and desirable. Between these two extremes we find bioliberals who admit…Read more
  •  90
    Od eutanazie k infanticidě
    Časopis Zdravotnického Práva a Bioetiky 5 (1): 5-27. 2015.
    [From Euthanasia to Infanticide] The paper revisits the recent controversy over Dr. Mitlőhner’s defense of infanticide, published in this journal. In section 1, I point out the weaknesses of Mitlőhner’s paper. In sections 2 and 3 I turn to the most sophisticated defense of infanticide on offer today, that of Peter Singer’s. Section 2 sums up Singer’s description of the medical practice as already having abandoned the traditional ethic of equal value of all human lives, which motivates ethical re…Read more
  •  89
    Empirismus, naturalismus a ideje
    Filosoficky Casopis 2 (65): 297-315. 2017.
    [Empiricism, Naturalism, and Ideas] The author analyses the modern reception of key themes in Hume’s philosophy during the past century. The first part presents Hume’s version of three such themes – empi­ricism, naturalism and the theory of ideas. The following three parts give an exposition of modern forms of each of these themes, with the choice of modern reception being directed to those contemporary authors who not only developed Hume’s motifs in the most original way, but who also explicitl…Read more
  •  85
    Pojem animální mysli
    In Hana Müllerová, David Cerny & Adam Doležal (eds.), Kapitoly o právech zvířat, . pp. 235-306. 2016.
    [The Concept of Animal Mind] A critical analysis and assessment of the current philosophical theories of animal cognition and consciousness. The contents: 1. The concept of mind; 2. Other minds; 3. Can animals think?; 4. Do animals have concsiousness?; 5. Conclusion.
  •  77
    Filip Tvrdý o naturalizaci filosofie
    Filosofie Dnes 9 (1): 71-79. 2017.
    [Filip Tvrdý on Naturalizing Philosophy] The paper distinguishes several versions of contemporary naturalism: revisionary, constructive, and non-representational. Revisionary naturalism pleads substituting the traditional philosophical inquiry into the nature of things by a genetic inquiry into the origin of our – often faulty – beliefs about the nature of things. Constructive naturalism accepts the program of traditional philosophy, yet hoping that its questions could be answered by broadly sci…Read more
  •  76
    The Menard Case and the Identity of a Literary Work of Art
    In Tomas Koblizek, Petr Kot'átko & Martin Pokorný (eds.), Text + Work: The Menard Case, . pp. 6-34. 2013.
  •  70
    Český Greenberg? Mukařovský a estetický formalismus
    Sešit Pro Umění, Teorii a Příbuzné Zóny 19 6-26. 2015.
    [A Czech Greenberg? Mukařovský and Aesthetic Formalism] This article revisits Tomáš Pospiszyl’s discussion of the split between the North American and the Czechoslovak postwar modernism as a difference between the views of two critics who dominated the American and the Czechoslovak art scene, respectively--Clement Greenberg and Jindřich Chalupecký. Pospiszyl convincingly traces the evolution of American art to what has been called Greenberg’s “formalism,” and the developments on the Czechoslovak…Read more
  •  64
    O vědomí, náboženství a svobodě vůle
    with James Hill
    Filosoficky Casopis 66 (2): 171-183. 2018.
    [On Consciousness, Religion, and Freedom of the Will] An interview with Daniel Dennett on consciousness, religion and free will.
  •  63
    Za etiku bez teologie
    Filosoficky Casopis 58 (5): 729-749. 2010.
    [For an Ethics without Theology] This study is a critical reflection on Marek Vácha's article on the ethics of euthanasia. In the first part the author offers a short consideration of the reasons for the moribund state of ethics in Czech philosophy, after which, in the second part, he presents a critique of Vácha's article. The article in question is, above all, lacking in a philosophical approach to the problem of euthanasia, and we find in it not so much arguments as rhetoric. The only line of…Read more
  •  63
    Utilitarianismus, nacismus a eutanazie
    Filosoficky Casopis 60 (6): 899-908. 2012.
    [Utilitarism, Nazism, and Euthanasia] The article is an answer to Prof. Munzarová who criticised my defence of physician-assisted suicide. The article points to shortcomings in the reply of prof. Munzarová which flow from the author’s underestimation of normative theory. Among these shortcomings are the ignoring of the arguments of her opponent; her calling into question the moral credit of the proponents of the competing theory (utilitarianism) rather than a critical analysis; unclear theoretic…Read more
  •  59
    Z evolučního hlediska: Pojem evoluce v současné filosofii (edited book)
    with Vladimir Havlik
    Filosofia. 2011.
    [From an Evolutionary Point of View: The Concept of Evolution in Contemporary Philosophy]
  •  53
    Materialismus a hylemorfismus
    Filosoficky Casopis 60 (4): 585-600. 2012.
    [Materialism and Hylomorphism] The author disputes the view, expressed recently by Tomáš Machula a David Peroutka, that materialism, dominant in contemporary philosophy of mind, should be substituted by Thomist hylomorphism. The critique focuses on two aspects of Machula and Peroutka’s argument. Firstly, on their assumption that the contemporary preference for materialism is the result of chance (ignorance of the fact that in addition to materialism and dualism the position of hylomorphism is al…Read more
  •  48
    Richards, J. R., The Ethics of Transplants (review)
    Filosoficky Casopis 62 915-919. 2014.
  •  47
    Ještě o etice eutanazie: odpovědi kritikům
    Filosoficky Casopis 59 (6): 911-931. 2011.
    [On the Ethics of Euthanasia Again: A Reply to Critics] The article is a reply to three critics of a previous piece on the ethics of euthanasia in which I defended physician-assisted suicide. According to Ingrid Strobachová it is necessary to give a greater attention to the significance of pain, which, she claims, may benefit from a phenomenological description. According to Marta Vlasáková my argument is not valid because two principles on which it is founded – i.e. the conception of life as of…Read more
  •  46
    Odpovědi přátelům
    Filosofie Dnes 9 (2): 91-110. 2017.
    [Replies to My Friends] This is an answer to the critics of my book WHAT IT'S LIKE, OR WHAT IT'S ABOUT? THE PLACE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE MATERIAL WORLD (2017). I proceed from the least to the most serious objections. I start with Jakub Mihálik’s defense of Russellian Monism against my claim that it is not a genuine alternative to standard dualism and materialism. In reply, I claim this is a side issue to the central aim of my book, which is to undermine the concept of phenomenal consciousness a…Read more
  •  44
    [Précis of What It’s Like, or What It’s About? The Place of Consciousness in the Material World] The paper provides a summary of my recent Czech-language book, WHAT IT'S LIKE, OR WHAT IT'S ABOUT? THE PLACE OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE MATERIAL WORLD (2017). As suggested by the subtitle, the topic of the book is philosophy of consciousness. In the contemporary literature, most participants have in mind the so-called phenomenal characters, and the main issue debated between dualists and materialists is…Read more
  •  43
    [What It’s Like, or What It’s About? The Place of Consciousness in the Material World] Summary: The book is both a survey of the contemporary debate and a defense of a distinctive position. Most philosophers nowadays assume that the focus of the philosophy of consciousness, its shared explanandum, is a certain property of experience variously called “phenomenal character,” “qualitative character,” “qualia” or “phenomenology,” understood in terms of what it is like to undergo the experience in qu…Read more
  •  41
    M. Vácha, R. Königová & M. Mauer, Základy moderní lékařské etiky (review)
    Filosoficky Casopis 62 909-915. 2014.
    A review of the new Czech-language textbook of medical ethics. I point out its multiple flaws, especially the insufficient grounding in normative theory and a bias towards the Catholic moral teachings.
  •  40
    Anti-individualism, materialism, naturalism
    Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 14 (3): 283-302. 2007.
    This paper starts from the familiar premise that psychological anti-individualism is incompatible with materialism. It attempts to state more clearly what this incompatibility consists in, and — rather than arguing in detail for any particular resolution — to inquire whether this incompatibility admits any resolution. However, the paper does offer a conditional argument concerning the possibility that the incompatibility is genuine and cannot be resolved. Provided that anti-individualism and mat…Read more
  •  37
    Adaptationism, Deflationism, and Anti-Individualism
    In Tomas Hribek & Juraj Hvorecky (eds.), Knowledge, Value, Evolution, . pp. 167-187. 2011.
    An examination of the externalist theories of Tyler Burge, Daniel Dennett and Ruth Millikan.
  •  33
    Denis Dutton, The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, and Human Evolution (review)
    Estetika 48 (2): 248-253. 2011.
    A review of Denis Dutton´s The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, and Human Evolution (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009, 280 pp. ISBN 978-1-59691-401-8)
  •  25
    [The Metaphysics of Anti-Individualism] A detailed exploration of the implications of psychological externalism -- in particular Tyler Burge's variety, or what he calls "anti-individualism" -- for the mind-body problem. Based on his anti-individualism, Burge famously rejected materialism, but the ramifications of this argument were not properly examined. I show how he rejects the identity, supervenience, and realization forms of materialism, but that he leaves out the possibility of constitution…Read more
  •  20
    Tomáš Pospiszyl: Srovnávací studie (review)
    Estetika 44 (1-4): 211-215. 2007.
    A review of Tomáš Pospiszyl’s Srovnávací studie
  •  8
    Realismus, materialismus a umění
    Sešit Pro Umění, Teorii a Příbuzné Zóny 21 38-66. 2016.
    [Realism, Materialism, and Art] Recent years have seen the ascendance of a new trend in continental philosophy called “the speculative turn”, “speculative realism”, “continental materialism”, or “object-oriented ontology” (OOO). I focus on the work of one of the proponents of this new trend, Graham Harman, in particular his recent attempt to extend his “object-oriented” approach to art and aesthetics. In part 1, I start with a brief characterization of the new trend in terms of the shared opposi…Read more
  •  4
    Mach and Panqualityism
    In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Ernst Mach – Life, Work, Influence, Springer Verlag. pp. 165-176. 2019.
    The chapter discusses the rejuvenation of an interest in Mach in the recent metaphysics and philosophy of mind. In the early twentieth century, Mach had been interpreted as a phenomenalist, but phenomenalism fell out of favor in the 1950s. In the later decades, he received praise for his naturalism, but his contributions to metaphysics or philosophy of mind were regarded as misbegotten or irrelevant. With the search for a monistic alternative to both materialism and dualism in the recent philoso…Read more
  •  3
    Against Coady on Hume on Testimony
    Acta Analytica 11 (16-17): 189-200. 1996.
    The paper critically examines C.A.J. Coady's analysis of testimony, concentrating on his interpretation of the views of David Hume. The author tries to show that not only is Coady's interpretation of Hume inadequate, but that Hume's conception of testimony is in fact superior to that of Coady. Coady sees Hume as the originator of the individualistic, first-person, view of testimony, according to which the reports of other people must be confirmed on the basis of an individualistically interprete…Read more