Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
  •  212
    Individuality and adaptation across levels of selection: How shall we name and generalize the unit of Darwinism?
    with Stephen Jay Gould
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21): 11904-09. 1999.
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast …Read more
  •  1025
    Pre-Theoretical Assumptions in Evolutionary Explanations of female sexuality
    Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3): 139-153. 1993.
    My contribution to this Symposium focuses on the links between sexuality and reproduction from the evolutionary point of view.' The relation between women's sexuality and reproduction is particularly importantb ecause of a vital intersectionb etweenp olitics and biology feminists have noticed, for more than a century, that women's identity is often defined in terms of her reproductive capacity. More recently, in the second wave of the feminist movement in the United States, debates about women's…Read more
  •  69
    I—Elisabeth A. Lloyd: Varieties of Support and Confirmation of Climate Models
    Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1): 213-232. 2009.
  •  2
    The Science Question in Feminism. Sandra Harding
    Isis 79 (2): 308-309. 1988.
  •  29
    Evaluation of Evidence in Group Selection Debates
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986. 1986.
    I address the controversy in evolutionary biology concerning which levels of biological entity (units) can and do undergo natural selection. I refine a definition of the unit of selection, first presented by William Wimsatt, that is grounded in the structure of natural selection models. I examine Elliott Sober's objection to this structural definition, the "homogeneous populations" problem; I find that neither the proposed definition nor Sober's own causal account can solve the problem. Sober, i…Read more
  •  582
    A semantic approach to the structure of population genetics
    Philosophy of Science 51 (2): 242-264. 1984.
    A precise formulation of the structure of modern evolutionary theory has proved elusive. In this paper, I introduce and develop a formal approach to the structure of population genetics, evolutionary theory's most developed sub-theory. Under the semantic approach, used as a framework in this paper, presenting a theory consists in presenting a related family of models. I offer general guidelines and examples for the classification of population genetics models; the defining features of the models…Read more
  •  34
    Response to Sloep and Van der Steen
    Biology and Philosophy 2 (1): 23-26. 1987.
  • 1. From the New Editor From the New Editor (p. iii)
    with Michael Dickson, C. Kenneth Waters, Matthew Dunn, Jennifer Cianciollo, Costas Mannouris, Richard Bradley, and James Mattingly
    Philosophy of Science 72 (2). 2005.
  •  392
    Model robustness as a confirmatory virtue: The case of climate science
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49 58-68. 2015.
    I propose a distinct type of robustness, which I suggest can support a confirmatory role in scientific reasoning, contrary to the usual philosophical claims. In model robustness, repeated production of the empirically successful model prediction or retrodiction against a background of independentlysupported and varying model constructions, within a group of models containing a shared causal factor, may suggest how confident we can be in the causal factor and predictions/retrodictions, especially…Read more
  •  40
    The structure and confirmation of evolutionary theory
    Princeton University Press. 1994.
    Traditionally a scientific theory is viewed as based on universal laws of nature that serve as axioms for logical deduction. In analyzing the logical structure of evolutionary biology, Elisabeth Lloyd argues that the semantic account is more appropriate and powerful. This book will be of interest to biologists and philosophers alike.
  •  21
    Feminism As Method: What Scientists Get That Philosophers Don’t
    Philosophical Topics 23 (2): 189-220. 1995.
  •  47
    The Semantic Approach and Its Application to Evolutionary Theory
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988. 1988.
    In this talk I do three things. First, I review what I take to be fruitful applications of the semantic view of theory structure to evolutionary theory. Second, I list and correct three common misunderstandings about the semantic view. Third, I evaluate the weaknesses and strengths of Horan's paper in this symposium. Specifically, I argue that the criticisms leveled against the semantic view by Horan are inappropriate because they incorporate some basic misconceptions about the semantic view its…Read more
  •  253
    Constitutional Failures of Meritocracy and Their Consequences
    Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (1): 142-144. 2013.
    Many of the commentators—let’s ignore their sex for the moment—suggested including women in the Feyerabend conference. Then the question was raised, “but are they of the right quality, status, rank?” That is, do they bring down the average quality of the conference in virtue of their being of inferior status, or, in Vincenzo Politi’s words, not “someone whose work is both relevant to the topic of the conference and also as widely recognized as the work of the invited speakers” (HOPOS-L archive, …Read more
  •  2
    Science, Politics, and Evolution
    Cambridge University Press. 2008.
    This book brings together important essays by one of the leading philosophers of science at work today. Elisabeth A. Lloyd examines several of the central topics in philosophy of biology, including the structure of evolutionary theory, units of selection, and evolutionary psychology, as well as the Science Wars, feminism and science, and sexuality and objectivity. Lloyd challenges the current evolutionary accounts of the female orgasm and analyses them for bias. She also offers an innovative ana…Read more
  •  95
    The ‘Alice in Wonderland’ mechanics of the rejection of (climate) science: simulating coherence by conspiracism
    with Stephan Lewandowsky and John Cook
    Synthese 195 (1): 175-196. 2018.
    Science strives for coherence. For example, the findings from climate science form a highly coherent body of knowledge that is supported by many independent lines of evidence: greenhouse gas emissions from human economic activities are causing the global climate to warm and unless GHG emissions are drastically reduced in the near future, the risks from climate change will continue to grow and major adverse consequences will become unavoidable. People who oppose this scientific body of knowledge …Read more
  •  52
    Rx: Distinguish group selection from group adaptation
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4): 628-629. 1994.
    I admire Wilson & Sober's (W & S's) aim, to alert social scientists that group selection has risen from the ashqs, and to explicate its relevance to the behavioral sciences. Group selection has beenwidely misunderstood; furthermore, both authors have been instrumental in illuminating conceptual problems surrounding higher-level selection. Still, I find that this target article muddies the waters, primarily through its shifting and confused definition of a "vehicle" of selection. The fundamental …Read more
  •  11
  •  73
    Units and levels of selection
    Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2008.
    The theory of evolution by natural selection is, perhaps, the crowning intellectual achievement of the biological sciences. There is, however, considerable debate about which entity or entities are selected and what it is that fits them for that role. This article aims to clarify what is at issue in these debates by identifying four distinct, though often confused, concerns and then identifying how the debates on what constitute the units of selection depend to a significant degree on which of t…Read more
  •  619
    Evolutionary psychology: A view from evolutionary biology
    with Marcus Feldman
    Psychological Inquiry 13 (2). 2002.
    Given the recent explosion of interest in applications of evolutionary biology to understanding human psychology, we think it timely to assure better understanding of modern evolutionary theory among the psychologists who might be using it. We find it necessary to do so because of the very reducd version of evolutionary theorizing that has been incorporated into much of evolutionary psychology so far. Our aim here is to clarify why the use of a reduced version of evolutionary genetics will lead …Read more
  •  208
    The generational cycle of state spaces and adequate genetical representation
    with Richard C. Lewontin and and Marcus W. Feldman
    Philosophy of Science 75 (2): 140-156. 2008.
    Most models of generational succession in sexually reproducing populations necessarily move back and forth between genic and genotypic spaces. We show that transitions between and within these spaces are usually hidden by unstated assumptions about processes in these spaces. We also examine a widely endorsed claim regarding the mathematical equivalence of kin-, group-, individual-, and allelic-selection models made by Lee Dugatkin and Kern Reeve. We show that the claimed mathematical equivalence…Read more
  •  496
    A structural approach to defining units of selection
    Philosophy of Science 56 (3): 395-418. 1989.
    The conflation of two fundamentally distinct issues has generated serious confusion in the philosophical and biological literature concerning the units of selection. The question of how a unit of selection of defined, theoretically, is rarely distinguished from the question of how to determine the empirical accuracy of claims--either specific or general--concerning which unit(s) is undergoing selection processes. In this paper, I begin by refining a definition of the unit of selection, first pre…Read more
  •  30
    Science and anti-science: Objectivity and its real enemies
    In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science, . pp. 217--259. 1996.
  •  275
    Objectivity and a comparison of methodological scenario approaches for climate change research
    with Vanessa J. Schweizer
    Synthese 191 (10): 2049-2088. 2014.
    Climate change assessments rely upon scenarios of socioeconomic developments to conceptualize alternative outcomes for global greenhouse gas emissions. These are used in conjunction with climate models to make projections of future climate. Specifically, the estimations of greenhouse gas emissions based on socioeconomic scenarios constrain climate models in their outcomes of temperatures, precipitation, etc. Traditionally, the fundamental logic of the socioeconomic scenarios—that is, the logic t…Read more
  •  1953
    Female sexual arousal: Genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse
    with Kim Wallen
    Hormones and Behavior 59 780-792. 2011.
    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's…Read more
  •  473
    Feyerabend, mill, and pluralism
    Philosophy of Science 64 (4): 407. 1997.
    I suggest following Paul Feyerabend's own advice, and interpreting Feyerabend's work in light of the principles laid out by John Stuart Mill. A review of Mill's essay, On Liberty, emphasizes the importance Mill placed on open and critical discussion for the vitality and progress of various aspects of human life, including the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Many of Feyerabend's more unusual stances, I suggest, are best interpreted as attempts to play certain roles--especially the role of "defen…Read more
  •  20
  •  328
    Confirmation of ecological and evolutionary models
    Biology and Philosophy 2 (3): 277-293. 1987.
    In this paper I distinguish various ways in which empirical claims about evolutionary and ecological models can be supported by data. I describe three basic factors bearing on confirmation of empirical claims: fit of the model to data; independent testing of various aspects of the model, and variety of evident. A brief description of the kinds of confirmation is followed by examples of each kind, drawn from a range of evolutionary and ecological theories. I conclude that the greater complexity a…Read more
  •  461
    Species selection on variability
    with Gould Stephen J.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90 595-599. 1993.
    this requirement for adaptations. Emergent characters are always potential adaptations. Not all selection processes produce adaptations, however. The key issue, in delineating a selection process, is the relationship between a character and fitness. The emergent character approach is more restrictive than alternative schemas that delineate selection..