Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
  • Adaptation
    Cambridge University Press. 2021.
    Natural selection causes adaptation, the fit between an organism and its environment. For example, the white and grey coloration of snowy owls living and breeding around the Arctic Circle provides camouflage from both predators and prey. In this Element, we explore a variety of such outcomes of the evolutionary process, including both adaptations and alternatives to adaptations, such as nonadaptive traits inherited from ancestors. We also explore how the concept of adaptation is used in evolutio…Read more
  •  26
    Severe weather event attribution: Why values won't go away
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84 142-149. 2020.
  •  1
    In Elisabeth A. Lloyd & Eric Winsberg (eds.), Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues, Springer Verlag. pp. 1-28. 2018.
    As we advance into the twenty-first century, the evidence of climate change is all around us. In the introduction to this volume, we discuss some of the successes of climate science in understanding and attributing the causes of these changes, as well as some of the challenges it faces in addressing questions for which we do not yet have the answers. We focus on the role of climate models and the philosophical and conceptual problems facing climate modelers and climate modeling. We then give the…Read more
  •  1
    Satellite Data and Climate Models
    In Elisabeth A. Lloyd & Eric Winsberg (eds.), Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues, Springer Verlag. pp. 65-71. 2018.
    In this brief chapter, Lloyd sets the stage for the following three papers, most centrally, Santer et al., which discusses whether the satellite data fit with climate models. Its target is a paper by Douglass et al., which claimed that satellite and weather balloon data showed that the climate models were wrong and could not be trusted. The Santer and Wigley “Fact Sheet” gives a nontechnical summary of what is wrong with the Douglass paper, while the full story is in Chap. 5, a reprint of the Sa…Read more
  •  1
    Climate scientists have been engaged in a decades-long debate over the standing of satellite measurements of the temperature trends of the atmosphere above the surface of the earth. This is especially significant because skeptics of global warming and the greenhouse effect have utilized this debate to spread doubt about global climate models used to predict future states of climate. I use this case from an understudied science to illustrate two distinct philosophical approaches to the relations …Read more
  •  11
    Climate Modelling: Philosophical and Conceptual Issues (edited book)
    Springer Verlag. 2018.
    1. Introduction; Elisabeth A. Lloyd and Eric Winsberg.- Section 1: Confirmation and Evidence.- 2. The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change: How Do We Know We’re Not Wrong?; Naomi Oreskes.- 3. Satellite Data and Climate Models Redux.- 3a. Introduction to Chapter 3: Satellite Data and Climate Models; Elisabeth A. Lloyd.- Ch. 3b Fact Sheet to "Consistency of Modelled and Observed Temperature Trends in the Tropical Troposphere"; Benjamin D. Santer et al..- Ch. 3c Reprint of "Consistency of Modelle…Read more
  •  250
    Sometimes an Orgasm is Just an Orgasm
    with Erika Lorraine Milam, Gillian R. Brown, Stefan Linquist, and Steve Fuller
    Metascience 15 (3): 399-435. 2006.
    I should like to offer my greatest thanks to Paul Griffiths for providing the opportunity for this exchange, and to commentators Gillian Brown, Steven Fuller, Stefan Linquist, and Erika Milam for their generous and thought-provoking comments. I shall do my best in this space to respond to some of their concerns.
  •  23
    Criteria for Holobionts from Community Genetics
    with Michael J. Wade
    Biological Theory 14 (3): 151-170. 2019.
    We address the controversy in the literature concerning the definition of holobionts and the apparent constraints on their evolution using concepts from community population genetics. The genetics of holobionts, consisting of a host and diverse microbial symbionts, has been neglected in many discussions of the topic, and, where it has been discussed, a gene-centric, species-centric view, based in genomic conflict, has been predominant. Because coevolution takes place between traits or genes in t…Read more
  •  54
    Session 2: Female orgasms and evolutionary theory
    with Karen Arnold, Sandra D. Mitchell, and Wendy Parker
    Proceedings of the Pittsburgh Workshop in History and Philosophy of Biology, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, March 23-24 2001 Session 2: Female Orgasms and Evolutionary Theory.
  •  19
    Elisabeth Lloyd Papers 1954-2017
    Archives of Scientific Philosophy, Archives and Special Collections, University of Pittsburgh Library System
    Elisabeth Lloyd is an American philosopher of science whose work is centered in the field of philosophy of biology. The material in this archive documents her work in philosophy of biology. The materials extend over the whole of her career and include manuscript materials, working notes on articles and books in progress, professional correspondence, teaching materials, documents relating to work with professional organizations, talks given to professional audiences, as well as annotated books, m…Read more
  •  83
    Holobionts as Units of Selection and a Model of Their Population Dynamics and Evolution
    with Joan Roughgarden, Scott F. Gilbert, Eugene Rosenberg, and Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg
    Biological Theory 13 (1): 44-65. 2018.
    Holobionts, consisting of a host and diverse microbial symbionts, function as distinct biological entities anatomically, metabolically, immunologically, and developmentally. Symbionts can be transmitted from parent to offspring by a variety of vertical and horizontal methods. Holobionts can be considered levels of selection in evolution because they are well-defined interactors, replicators/reproducers, and manifestors of adaptation. An initial mathematical model is presented to help understand …Read more
  •  42
    Exaptation Revisited: Changes Imposed by Evolutionary Psychologists and Behavioral Biologists
    with Stephen Gould
    Biological Theory 12 (1): 50-65. 2017.
    Some methodological adaptationists hijacked the term “exaptation,” and took an occasion of Stephen Jay Gould’s misspeaking as confirmation that it possessed an evolutionarily “designed” function and was a version of an adaptation, something it was decidedly not. Others provided a standard of evidence for exaptation that was inappropriate, and based on an adaptationist worldview. This article is intended to serve as both an analysis of and correction to those situations. Gould and Elisabeth Vrba’…Read more
  •  551
    Pluralism without Genic Causes?
    with Matthew Dunn, Jennifer Cianciollo, and Costas Mannouris
    Philosophy of Science 72 (2): 334-341. 2005.
    Since the fundamental challenge that I laid at the doorstep of the pluralists was to defend, with nonderivative models, a strong notion of genic cause, it is fatal that Waters has failed to meet that challenge. Waters agrees with me that there is only a single cause operating in these models, but he argues for a notion of causal ‘parsing’ to sustain the viability of some form of pluralism. Waters and his colleagues have some very interesting and important ideas about the sciences, involving plur…Read more
  •  13
    The Generational Cycle of State Spaces and Adequate Genetical Representation
    with Richard C. Lewontin and Marcus W. Feldman
    Philosophy of Science 75 (2): 140-156. 2008.
  • A Semantic Approach to the Structure of Evolutionary Theory
    Dissertation, Princeton University. 1984.
    The structure of evolutionary theory has proved difficult to characterize. Most available analyses focus on the existence of evolutionary laws and on the axiomatizability of the theory; such analyses pay insufficient attention to mathematical evolutionary models and their structure, and to the structural complications arising from the variety of evolutionary sub-theories. ;The primary goal of this dissertation is to introduce and develop an analysis of the structure of evolutionary theory that i…Read more
  •  7
    Evolution's lost souls
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5): 484-485. 2006.
    The target article speaks loudest about what it cannot see – that man exists in God. Its claim that supernatural beliefs are “evolved errors” rests on unwarranted assumption and mistaken argument. Implications for evolutionary study are considered.
  •  30
    Science and anti-science: Objectivity and its real enemies
    In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science, . pp. 217--259. 1996.
  •  275
    Objectivity and a comparison of methodological scenario approaches for climate change research
    with Vanessa J. Schweizer
    Synthese 191 (10): 2049-2088. 2014.
    Climate change assessments rely upon scenarios of socioeconomic developments to conceptualize alternative outcomes for global greenhouse gas emissions. These are used in conjunction with climate models to make projections of future climate. Specifically, the estimations of greenhouse gas emissions based on socioeconomic scenarios constrain climate models in their outcomes of temperatures, precipitation, etc. Traditionally, the fundamental logic of the socioeconomic scenarios—that is, the logic t…Read more
  •  471
    Feyerabend, mill, and pluralism
    Philosophy of Science 64 (4): 407. 1997.
    I suggest following Paul Feyerabend's own advice, and interpreting Feyerabend's work in light of the principles laid out by John Stuart Mill. A review of Mill's essay, On Liberty, emphasizes the importance Mill placed on open and critical discussion for the vitality and progress of various aspects of human life, including the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Many of Feyerabend's more unusual stances, I suggest, are best interpreted as attempts to play certain roles--especially the role of "defen…Read more
  •  1911
    Female sexual arousal: Genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse
    with Kim Wallen
    Hormones and Behavior 59 780-792. 2011.
    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's…Read more
  •  325
    Confirmation of ecological and evolutionary models
    Biology and Philosophy 2 (3): 277-293. 1987.
    In this paper I distinguish various ways in which empirical claims about evolutionary and ecological models can be supported by data. I describe three basic factors bearing on confirmation of empirical claims: fit of the model to data; independent testing of various aspects of the model, and variety of evident. A brief description of the kinds of confirmation is followed by examples of each kind, drawn from a range of evolutionary and ecological theories. I conclude that the greater complexity a…Read more
  •  20
  •  1054
    This article discusses various dangers that accompany the supposedly benign methods in behavioral evoltutionary biology and evolutionary psychology that fall under the framework of "methodological adaptationism." A "Logic of Research Questions" is proposed that aids in clarifying the reasoning problems that arise due to the framework under critique. The live, and widely practiced, " evolutionary factors" framework is offered as the key comparison and alternative. The article goes beyond the trad…Read more
  •  458
    Species selection on variability
    with Gould Stephen J.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90 595-599. 1993.
    this requirement for adaptations. Emergent characters are always potential adaptations. Not all selection processes produce adaptations, however. The key issue, in delineating a selection process, is the relationship between a character and fitness. The emergent character approach is more restrictive than alternative schemas that delineate selection..
  •  1120
    Kanzi, evolution, and language
    Biology and Philosophy 19 (4): 577-88. 2004.
  •  1797
    Evolutionary Psychology: The Burdens of Proof
    Biology and Philosophy 14 (2): 211-233. 1999.
      I discuss two types of evidential problems with the most widely touted experiments in evolutionary psychology, those performed by Leda Cosmides and interpreted by Cosmides and John Tooby. First, and despite Cosmides and Tooby's claims to the contrary, these experiments don't fulfil the standards of evidence of evolutionary biology. Second Cosmides and Tooby claim to have performed a crucial experiment, and to have eliminated rival approaches. Though they claim that their results are consistent…Read more
  •  424
    Varieties of support and confirmation of climate models
    Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1): 213-232. 2009.
    Today's climate models are supported in a couple of ways that receive little attention from philosophers or climate scientists. In addition to standard 'model fit', wherein a model's simulation is compared to observational data, there is an additional type of confirmation available through the variety of instances of model fit. When a model performs well at fitting first one variable and then another, the probability of the model under some standard confirmation function, say, likelihood, goes u…Read more