Bloomington, Indiana, United States of America
  •  1077
    This article discusses various dangers that accompany the supposedly benign methods in behavioral evoltutionary biology and evolutionary psychology that fall under the framework of "methodological adaptationism." A "Logic of Research Questions" is proposed that aids in clarifying the reasoning problems that arise due to the framework under critique. The live, and widely practiced, " evolutionary factors" framework is offered as the key comparison and alternative. The article goes beyond the trad…Read more
  •  461
    Species selection on variability
    with Gould Stephen J.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90 595-599. 1993.
    this requirement for adaptations. Emergent characters are always potential adaptations. Not all selection processes produce adaptations, however. The key issue, in delineating a selection process, is the relationship between a character and fitness. The emergent character approach is more restrictive than alternative schemas that delineate selection..
  •  1125
    Kanzi, evolution, and language
    Biology and Philosophy 19 (4): 577-88. 2004.
  •  1822
    Evolutionary Psychology: The Burdens of Proof
    Biology and Philosophy 14 (2): 211-233. 1999.
      I discuss two types of evidential problems with the most widely touted experiments in evolutionary psychology, those performed by Leda Cosmides and interpreted by Cosmides and John Tooby. First, and despite Cosmides and Tooby's claims to the contrary, these experiments don't fulfil the standards of evidence of evolutionary biology. Second Cosmides and Tooby claim to have performed a crucial experiment, and to have eliminated rival approaches. Though they claim that their results are consistent…Read more
  •  427
    Varieties of support and confirmation of climate models
    Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1): 213-232. 2009.
    Today's climate models are supported in a couple of ways that receive little attention from philosophers or climate scientists. In addition to standard 'model fit', wherein a model's simulation is compared to observational data, there is an additional type of confirmation available through the variety of instances of model fit. When a model performs well at fitting first one variable and then another, the probability of the model under some standard confirmation function, say, likelihood, goes u…Read more
  • Book notices-the structure and confirmation of evolutionary theory
    History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 21 (2): 242-242. 1999.
  •  1580
    The Nature of Darwin’s Support for the Theory of Natural Selection
    Philosophy of Science 50 (1): 112-129. 1983.
    When natural selection theory was presented, much active philosophical debate, in which Darwin himself participated, centered on its hypothetical nature, its explanatory power, and Darwin's methodology. Upon first examination, Darwin's support of his theory seems to consist of a set of claims pertaining to various aspects of explanatory success. I analyze the support of his method and theory given in the Origin of Species and private correspondence, and conclude that an interpretation focusing o…Read more
  •  708
    Empiricism, Objectivity, and Explanation
    with Carl G. Anderson
    Midwest Studies in Philosophy 18 (1): 121-131. 1993.
    We sley Salmon, in his influential and detailed book, Four Decades of Scientific Explanation, argues that the pragmatic approach to scientific explanation, “construed as the claim that scientific explanation can be explicated entirely in pragmatic terms” (1989, 185) is inadequate. The specific inadequacy ascribed to a pragmatic account is that objective relevance relations cannot be incorporated into such an account. Salmon relies on the arguments given in Kitcher and Salmon (1987) to ground thi…Read more
  •  1871
    Science Gone Astray: Evolution and Rape (review)
    Michigan Law Review 99 (6): 1536-1559. 2001.
    This is a critique of "A Natural History of Rape: Biological Bases of Sexual Coercion" (Thornhill & Palmer, 2000). Lloyd argues that they have failed to do "excellent science" as required to defend themselves against criticism. As an example, Lloyd contends that they make conclusions which depend on rape being a single trait, while failing to prorivde any basis for such an assumption.
  •  860
    The emphasis on the limitations of objectivity, in specific guises and networks, has been a continuing theme of contemporary analytic philosophy for the past few decades. The popular sport of baiting feminist philosophers — into pointing to what's left out of objective knowledge, or into describing what methods, exactly, they would offer to replace the powerful objective methods grounding scientific knowledge — embodies a blatant double standard which has the effect of constantly putting feminis…Read more
  •  256
    David Hull's analysis of conceptual change in science, as presentedin his book, Science as a Process (1988), provides a useful framework for understanding one of the scientific controversies in which he actively and constructively intervened, the units of selectiondebates in evolutionary biology. What follows is a brief overview ofthose debates and some reflections on them.
  •  1161
  •  224
    Altruism Revisited (review)
    Quarterly Review of Biology 74 (4): 447-449. 1999.
  •  400
    The anachronistic anarchist
    Philosophical Studies 81 (2-3). 1996.
    A reading of Feyerabend in Against Method, and a comparison of C.S. Peirce.
  •  190
    Memorium for Stephen Jay Gould
    Biology and Philosophy 17 (3): 303-304. 2002.
  •  423
    Why the Gene will not return
    Philosophy of Science 72 (2): 287-310. 2005.
    I argue that four of the fundamental claims of those calling themselves `genic pluralists'Philip Kitcher, Kim Sterelny, and Ken Watersare defective. First, they claim that once genic selectionism is recognized, the units of selection problems will be dissolved. Second, Sterelny and Kitcher claim that there are no targets of selection. Third, Sterelny, Kitcher, and Waters claim that they have a concept of genic causation that allows them to give independent genic causal accounts of all selection …Read more
  •  502
    Confirmation and Robustness of Climate Models
    Philosophy of Science 77 (5). 2010.
    Recent philosophical attention to climate models has highlighted their weaknesses and uncertainties. Here I address the ways that models gain support through observational data. I review examples of model fit, variety of evidence, and independent support for aspects of the models, contrasting my analysis with that of other philosophers. I also investigate model robustness, which often emerges when comparing climate models simulating the same time period or set of conditions. Starting from Michael…Read more
  •  86
    The role of 'complex' empiricism in the debates about satellite data and climate models
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (2): 390-401. 2012.
    climate scientists have been engaged in a decades-long debate over the standing of satellite measurements of the temperature trends of the atmosphere above the surface of the earth. This is especially significant because skeptics of global warming and the greenhouse effect have utilized this debate to spread doubt about global climate models used to predict future states of climate. I use this case from an under-studied science to illustrate two distinct philosophical approaches to the relation …Read more
  •  212
    Individuality and adaptation across levels of selection: How shall we name and generalize the unit of Darwinism?
    with Stephen Jay Gould
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96 (21): 11904-09. 1999.
    Two major clarifications have greatly abetted the understanding and fruitful expansion of the theory of natural selection in recent years: the acknowledgment that interactors, not replicators, constitute the causal unit of selection; and the recognition that interactors are Darwinian individuals, and that such individuals exist with potency at several levels of organization (genes, organisms, demes, and species in particular), thus engendering a rich hierarchical theory of selection in contrast …Read more
  •  5
    Selection Models and the Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection
    Philosophie Et Culture: Actes du XVIIe Congrès Mondial de Philosophie 3 108-112. 1988.
  •  1025
    Pre-Theoretical Assumptions in Evolutionary Explanations of female sexuality
    Philosophical Studies 69 (2-3): 139-153. 1993.
    My contribution to this Symposium focuses on the links between sexuality and reproduction from the evolutionary point of view.' The relation between women's sexuality and reproduction is particularly importantb ecause of a vital intersectionb etweenp olitics and biology feminists have noticed, for more than a century, that women's identity is often defined in terms of her reproductive capacity. More recently, in the second wave of the feminist movement in the United States, debates about women's…Read more
  •  69
    I—Elisabeth A. Lloyd: Varieties of Support and Confirmation of Climate Models
    Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1): 213-232. 2009.
  •  29
    Evaluation of Evidence in Group Selection Debates
    PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986. 1986.
    I address the controversy in evolutionary biology concerning which levels of biological entity (units) can and do undergo natural selection. I refine a definition of the unit of selection, first presented by William Wimsatt, that is grounded in the structure of natural selection models. I examine Elliott Sober's objection to this structural definition, the "homogeneous populations" problem; I find that neither the proposed definition nor Sober's own causal account can solve the problem. Sober, i…Read more
  •  2
    The Science Question in Feminism. Sandra Harding
    Isis 79 (2): 308-309. 1988.
  •  582
    A semantic approach to the structure of population genetics
    Philosophy of Science 51 (2): 242-264. 1984.
    A precise formulation of the structure of modern evolutionary theory has proved elusive. In this paper, I introduce and develop a formal approach to the structure of population genetics, evolutionary theory's most developed sub-theory. Under the semantic approach, used as a framework in this paper, presenting a theory consists in presenting a related family of models. I offer general guidelines and examples for the classification of population genetics models; the defining features of the models…Read more