•  742
    Virtual Reality and Empathy Enhancement: Ethical Aspects
    with Jon Rueda
    Frontiers in Robotics and AI 7. 2020.
    The history of humankind is full of examples that indicate a constant desire to make human beings more moral. Nowadays, technological breakthroughs might have a significant impact on our moral character and abilities. This is the case of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. The aim of this paper is to consider the ethical aspects of the use of VR in enhancing empathy. First, we will offer an introduction to VR, explaining its fundamental features, devices and concepts. Then, we will approach the c…Read more
  •  590
    Erick J. Ramirez, Miles Elliott and Per‑Erik Milam (2021) have recently claimed that using Virtual Reality (VR) as an educational nudge to promote empathy is unethical. These authors argue that the influence exerted on the participant through virtual simulation is based on the deception of making them believe that they are someone else when this is impossible. This makes the use of VR for empathy enhancement a manipulative strategy in itself. In this article, we show that Ramirez et al.’s ethica…Read more
  •  183
    Artificial Intelligence as a Socratic Assistant for Moral Enhancement
    with Jan Deckers
    Neuroethics 13 (3): 275-287. 2019.
    The moral enhancement of human beings is a constant theme in the history of humanity. Today, faced with the threats of a new, globalised world, concern over this matter is more pressing. For this reason, the use of biotechnology to make human beings more moral has been considered. However, this approach is dangerous and very controversial. The purpose of this article is to argue that the use of another new technology, AI, would be preferable to achieve this goal. Whilst several proposals have be…Read more
  •  170
    Sobre las razones para ampliar la comunidad moral
    Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 18 (3). 1999.
    En el artículo se critica la tesis de Javier Mosterín (defendida en su libro Vivan los Animales, Debate, 1998) de que los animales no humanos deben ser incluidos en la comunidad moral como resultado de un progreso moral en la sensibilidad de los humanos que llevará progresivamente a una mayor compasión por el sufrimiento ajeno. Tras señalar ciertas deficiencias metaéticas de esta propuesta y la no deseada implicación normativa de tener que incluir finalmente en la comunidad moral a cualquier ser…Read more
  •  83
    Oxytocin, Empathy and Human Enhancement
    Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 32 (3): 367. 2017.
    This paper considers, firstly, to what extent the administration of oxytocin can augment the capacity of empathy in human beings; and secondly, whether or not such practice ought to be allowed. In relation to the latter, the author develops an argument in favour of this intervention by virtue of its consistency with the belief that, if a therapeutic treatment is to be considered acceptable, it is essential that it maximizes the well-being of those affected and that it does not compromise the aut…Read more
  •  59
    AI-powered recommender systems and the preservation of personal autonomy
    with Juan Ignacio del Valle
    AI and Society 1-13. forthcoming.
    Recommender Systems (RecSys) have been around since the early days of the Internet, helping users navigate the vast ocean of information and the increasingly available options that have been available for us ever since. The range of tasks for which one could use a RecSys is expanding as the technical capabilities grow, with the disruption of Machine Learning representing a tipping point in this domain, as in many others. However, the increase of the technical capabilities of AI-powered RecSys di…Read more
  •  54
    Why a Virtual Assistant for Moral Enhancement When We Could have a Socrates?
    Science and Engineering Ethics 27 (4): 1-27. 2021.
    Can Artificial Intelligence be more effective than human instruction for the moral enhancement of people? The author argues that it only would be if the use of this technology were aimed at increasing the individual's capacity to reflectively decide for themselves, rather than at directly influencing behaviour. To support this, it is shown how a disregard for personal autonomy, in particular, invalidates the main proposals for applying new technologies, both biomedical and AI-based, to moral enh…Read more
  •  47
    Many of our daily activities are now made more convenient and efficient by virtual assistants, and the day when they can be designed to instruct us in certain skills, such as those needed to make moral judgements, is not far off. In this paper we ask to what extent it would be ethically acceptable for these so-called virtual assistants for moral enhancement to use subtle strategies, known as “nudges”, to influence our decisions. To achieve our goal, we will first characterise nudges in their sta…Read more
  •  42
    Bioethics and Human Enhancement: an Interview with Julian Savulescu
    with M. Ángeles Arráez, Miguel Moreno, Pedro Francés, and Javier Rodríguez Alcázar
    Dilemata 3 15-25. 2010.
  •  36
    ¿Consecuencias, de qué? Claves de la subsistencia del Utilitarismo
    Telos: Revista Iberoamericana de Estudios Utilitaristas 18 (1): 105-125. 2011.
    Despite the strong criticisms to ethical utilitarianism, this theory has not succumbed and remains one of the most notorious. The main criticisms address to the consequentialist conception of right that underlies the theory. However,it has been such a conception of right that, at the same time, saved utilitarianism. The article set out the features and changes that, according to the author, are the causes to explain the subsistence of utilitarianism
  •  35
    Doctor, please make me freer: Capabilities enhancement as a goal of medicine
    with Jon Rueda and Pablo García-Barranquero
    Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (3): 409-419. 2021.
    Biomedical innovations are making possible the enhancement of human capabilities. There are two philosophical stances on the role that medicine should play in this respect. On the one hand, naturalism rejects every medical intervention that goes beyond preventing and treating disease. On the other hand, welfarism advocates enhancements that foster subjective well-being. We will show that both positions have considerable shortcomings. Consequently, we will introduce a third characterization in wh…Read more
  •  35
    La entidad de los animales y nuestras obligaciones con ellos
    Signos Filosóficos 8 (15): 105-128. 2006.
    The article analyzes two basic matters in the recent development of the zooethics. First, whether traditional reasons for the coincidence between the limits of moral community and the limits of human species are valid. Second, the question of what kind of obligations we would have with animals in..
  •  33
    RESUMEN: El artículo expone el programa filosófico de Heidegger en su cursoProblemas fundamentales de la fenomenología de 1919/20 y destaca su concepto de concreción. Por esa vía se explicita cuál es para Heidegger el asunto y la tarea de la filosofía. Finalmente, se lleva a cabo una crítica de sus pretensiones tanto de concreción como de formalidad, mostrando que ambas están lastradas por varios prejuicios. Para finalizar, se ponen de relieve, también de forma crítica, algunas consecuencias fen…Read more
  •  31
    Ethics of Artificial Intelligence (edited book)
    with Jan Deckers
    Springer Nature Switzerland. 2023.
    This book presents the reader with a comprehensive and structured understanding of the ethics of Artificial Intelligence (AI). It describes the main ethical questions that arise from the use of AI in different areas, as well as the contribution of various academic disciplines such as legal policy, environmental sciences, and philosophy of technology to the study of AI. AI has become ubiquitous and is significantly changing our lives, in many cases, for the better, but it comes with ethical chall…Read more
  •  31
    The political gesture of Heidegger’s philosophies: Contribution to a current debate
    Veritas: Revista de Filosofía y Teología 31 73-86. 2014.
    El artículo pretende contribuir a la discusión actual en torno al «caso Heidegger». En concreto, se intentarán mostrar tres gestos políticos correspondientes a tres momentos distintos de la evolución de su pensamiento: el neokantismo, la fenomenología hermenéutica y la ontohistoria. Se planteará hasta qué punto son distintos estos gestos, qué tienen en común y, sobre todo, qué lugar político se le concede a la filosofía en ellos. This paper aims to contribute to the current discussion around the…Read more
  •  29
    Should we sacrifice embryos to cure people?
    Human Affairs 22 (4): 623-635. 2012.
    Medical stem cell research is currently the cause of much moral controversy. Those who would confer the same moral status to embryos as we do to humans consider that harvesting such embryonic cells entails sacrificing embryos. In this paper, the author analyses critically the arguments given for such a perspective. Finally, a theory of moral status is outlined that coherently and plausibly supports the use of embryonic stem cells in therapeutic research.
  •  29
    Ethical requisites for neuroenhancement of moral motivation
    Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 8 (8): 159-181. 2017.
    No agreement exists among ethical theories on what cancount as a right moral motivation. This hampers us from knowingwhether an intervention in motivation biology can be considered positivefor human morality. To overcome this difficulty, this paper identifiesminimal requirements for moral enhancement that could be accepted bythe major moral theories. Subsequently four possible scenarios are presentedwhere the most promising neural interventions on moral motivationare implemented, by means of dru…Read more
  •  26
    Moral bioenhancements and the future of utilitarianism
    Ethics and Bioethics (in Central Europe) 11 (3-4): 217-230. 2021.
    Utilitarianism has been able to respond to many of the objections raised against it by undertaking a major revision of its theory. Basically, this consisted of recognising that its early normative propositions were only viable for agents very different from flesh-and-blood humans. They then deduced that, given human limitations, it was most useful for everyone if moral agents did not behave as utilitarians and habitually followed certain rules. Important recent advances in neurotechnology sugges…Read more
  •  22
    Ética en la guerra: la distinción entre soldados y civiles
    Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 38 (2): 79-98. 2013.
    In war a soldier behaving properly should take into account a universal requirement not to kill, to be applied strictly in dealing with civilians, but at the same time to support the exception of taking the life of enemy combatants as an act of selfdefense. This is the usual way to distinguish morally the proper treatment to soldiers and civilians. In this article the author criticizes it and outlines a different way to understand and justify the moral distinction mentioned
  •  22
    The new biotechnology raises expectations for modifying human behaviour through its use. This article focuses on the ethical analysis of the not so remote possibility of rehabilitating criminals by means of neurotechnological techniques. The analysis is carried out from a synthetic position of, on the one hand, the consequentialist conception of what is right and, on the other hand, the emphasis on individual liberties. As a result, firstly, the ethical appropriateness of adopting a general pred…Read more
  •  16
    The Moral Status of AI Entities
    In Francisco Lara & Jan Deckers (eds.), Ethics of Artificial Intelligence, Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 59-83. 2023.
    The emergence of AI is posing serious challenges to standard conceptions of moral status. New non-biological entities are able to act and make decisions rationally. The question arises, in this regard, as to whether AI systems possess or can possess the necessary properties to be morally considerable. In this chapter, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of the various debates that are taking place about the moral status of AI. First, we have discussed the possibility that AI systems, by vir…Read more
  •  15
    El gesto político de las filosofías de Heidegger: Contribución a un debate actual
    Veritas: Revista de Filosofía y Teología 31 73-86. 2014.
  •  15
    Heidegger y el cristianismo de San Pablo y San Agustín
    Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 7 28-46. 2007.
  •  14
    El presente artículo analiza los primeros escritos de Heidegger, en el contexto de sus orígenes católicos y antimodernos, a fin de mostrar en ellos una serie de aspectos característicos. La pretensión final consiste en poner de relieve los elementos valorativos y cosmovisionales que dirigen el pensamiento de Heidegger en sus inicios. De ese modo, se vuelve posible dejar planteada la pregunta de si dichos elementos no siguen jugando un papel decisivo, aunque menos visible ya, en toda la filosofía…Read more
  •  14
    Entrefenomenología y hermenéutica: "in memoriam Franco Volpi" (edited book)
    with Franco Volpi
    Plaza y Valdés Editores. 2011.
    Los trabajos que componen este libro se adentran en eso que ha llegado a verse como un campo de estudio asegurado, pero que más bien parece un arco en problemática tensión: el que se forma al pretender conjuntar la fenomenología “y” la hermenéutica. La particularidad de Heidegger consiste tanto en haber tensado ese arco como en haber abandonado después su propio intento, tan fructífero para otros. Por ello, Heidegger es −junto a Gadamer− el interlocutor principal de estos escritos. El libro tien…Read more
  •  11
    Los modelos de análisis fenomenológico del joven Heidegger. Una discusión sobre el lugar político de la filosofía
    Pensamiento. Revista de Investigación E Información Filosófica 74 (281): 603-621. 2018.
    El presente trabajo pretende ser un aporte a la discusión actual sobre las implicaciones políticas de la filosofía de Heidegger. A tal efecto, se remonta a la filosofía del joven Heidegger y presenta los dos grandes modelos de análisis fenomenológico que éste pone en marcha en sus primeros cursos de Friburgo. Gracias a ello se vuelve posible hacer explícitas sus convicciones acerca del objeto y el sentido de la filosofía, así como sobre la relación de ésta con lo que el mismo Heidegger considera…Read more
  •  11
    El texto rinde un homenaje a Ramón Rodríguez a partir de una revisión de dos aspectos. Por un lado, el modo como el autor llegó a conocer el trabajo de Ramón Rodríguez y el impacto que tuvo en sus propias investigaciones. Por otro lado, la importancia que su libro La transformación hermenéutica de la fenomenología posee en el marco de los estudios heideggerianos. En especial, se destaca su lectura de la intencionalidad, la intuición hermenéutica y la indicación formal. El objetivo final es mostr…Read more
  •  10
    The paper presents the philosophical project outlined by Marcuse in his work Contributions to a phenomenology of historical materialism from three different points of view. First, it sketches the discussion context in which this work is placed. then, it explains the critical way in which Marcuse appropriates some of the topics developed in Being and time. Lastly, it indicates the reception that Heidegger made of this original interpretation of his own work.
  •  10
    Ethical Analysis of the Embryonic Stem Cell Controversy
    Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 22 (6): 226-235. 2012.
    Medical research on human embryo stem cells has provoked a considerable amount of moral controversy. In this paper, the author critically analyses the arguments in this debate. A theory of moral status that coherently and plausibly advocates the use of embryonic stem cells in therapeutic research is also outlined.