•  102
    In this article I shall undertake a preliminary exploration of the notion of second best. I shall follow a three-step strategy. First, I shall introduce some applications of the theorem of the second best in different fields of philosophy and social sciences. Secondly, I shall make several conceptual distinctions related to the theorem. I aim to show that there are certain theoretical results that are similar but not identical to the theorem of the second best, and that the notion of second best…Read more
  •  34
  •  26
    Moderate Conventionalism and Cultural Appropriation
    Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 81-88. 2019.
    Cultural appropriation, also called cultural borrowing, has been the topic of much discussion in recent years. Roughly speaking, cultural appropriation happens when someone outside of a cultural or ethnic group takes or uses some object that is characteristic or in some way important to the group without the group’s permission. Individuals who find cultural appropriation unproblematic have often argued that if we express moral criticism of the use of traditional Sami outfits by non-Sami, then we…Read more
  •  21
    On Political Conspiracy Theories &ast
    Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2): 185-201. 2009.
  •  6
    On the Nontechnical Limits of Brain Imaging
    Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4): 527-541. 2020.
    Since the advent of neuroimaging technologies, their limits and possibilities have captivated scientists and philosophers. Thus far, the debate has largely concerned technical limits of our capacity to “read minds.” This paper extends the discussion concerning the limitations of neuroimaging to issues that are not dependent on technical issues or on our understanding of the complexity of brain activities. The author argues that there is a serious chance that brain scanning cannot replace usual i…Read more
  •  29
    Ratio, EarlyView.
  •  13
    Regret and Obligation
    The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 12 24-29. 1998.
    In Albert Camus' 1950 play Just Assassins, terrorists are at work in nineteenth-century Russia. They kill people, and they all believe that there is a superior moral reason for doing so. But they also know that killing is wrong. In their own view, they are innocent criminals; innocent, because their action is justified, but criminals, because they kill. So tacitly they conclude that they deserve punishment that will remove the regret from their shoulders. Their execution, by the same despotic au…Read more
  •  4
    The Social Concept of Disease
    Theoretical Medicine: An International Journal for the Philosophy and Methodology of Medical Research and Practice 17 (4): 353-361. 1996.
    In the discussion of such social questions as "how should alcoholics be treated by society?" and "what kind of people are responsible in the face of the law?", is "disease" a value-free or value-laden notion, a natural or a normative one? It seems, for example, that by the utterance 'alcoholism should be classified as a disease' we mean something like the following: the condition called alcoholism is similar in morally relevant respects to conditions that we uncontroversially label diseases and,…Read more
  •  12
    Distribution and ignorance
    Synthese 198 (3): 2641-2657. 2019.
    According to the so-called presumption of equality, a person who does not know whether there is an acceptable reason for differential treatment should just presume the similarity of the cases and treat them equally. If we assume that the presumption of equality is an acceptable moral principle, at least when the allocation cannot be postponed and an equal distribution of goods is possible, then an important question arises: when exactly does the allocator have sufficient reasons for differential…Read more
  •  2
    Political Liberalism and Religious Ideals
    Res Cogitans 4 (2). 2007.
  •  1
    From the Guest Editor
    Res Cogitans 8 (1). 2011.
  •  27
    On the presumption of equality
    Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 22 (7): 809-822. 2019.
  •  11
    When a Person Feels that She Is Guilty and Believes that She Is Not Guilty
    The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9 149-152. 2006.
    Guilt feelings are an important part of our emotional life that is relevant to moral philosophy, and guilt feelings raise many theoretically interesting questions. One such question is the problem of how it is possible that sometimes people seem to feel guilty because of an act they have committed even if they believe that the act is not wrong and that it does not have any moral costs. A person raised in a religious family may have been taught that going to the theater is wrong, and even if she …Read more
  •  71
    Brain imaging and privacy
    Neuroethics 3 (1): 5-12. 2010.
    I will argue that the fairly common assumption that brain imaging may compromise people’s privacy in an undesirable way only if moral crimes are committed is false. Sometimes persons’ privacy is compromised because of failures of privacy. A normal emotional reaction to failures of privacy is embarrassment and shame, not moral resentment like in the cases of violations of right to privacy. I will claim that if (1) neuroimaging will provide all kinds of information about persons’ inner life and no…Read more
  •  34
    Global justice and the logic of the burden of proof
    Metaphilosophy 36 (1-2): 228-239. 2005.
  •  17
    The ethical and political evaluation of biotechnology strategies
    Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3): 273-280. 2009.
    In this paper I will briefly discuss the role and function of the ethical advisory committees and other ethics bodies that are supposed to take care of the ethical dimension of the biotechnology strategies. The expert ethical advice has created colourful discussion in many contexts, but here I aim to analyze the role and relevance of ethical expertise in the context of national and regional biotechnology strategies. I will argue that it may be quite unproblematic that the work of the ethics comm…Read more
  •  134
    On political conspiracy theories
    Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2): 185-201. 2008.
  •  15
    Is privacy relative?
    Journal of Social Philosophy 39 (4): 534-546. 2008.
    No Abstract
  •  6
    In this book the practical dimension of social justice is explained using the analysis and discussion of a variety of well-known topics. These include: the relation between theory and practice in normative political philosophy; the issue of justice under uncertainty; the question of whether we can and should unmask social injustices by means of conspiracy theories; the issues of privacy and the right to privacy; the issue of how certain psychological states may affect our moral obligations, in p…Read more
  •  46
    Rawls and international justice
    Philosophia 25 (1-4): 163-189. 1997.
  •  42
    Burden of Proof Rules in Social Criticism
    Argumentation 11 (4): 463-477. 1997.
    The article discusses burden of proof rules in social criticism. By social criticism I mean an argumentative situation in which an opponent publicly argues against certain social practices; the examples I consider are discrimination on the basis of species and discrimination on the basis of one's nationality. I argue that burden of proof rules assumed by those who defend discrimination are somewhat dubious. In social criticism, there are no shared values which would uncontroversially determine w…Read more
  •  17
    Problems in Population Theory
    Journal of Social Philosophy 31 (4): 401-413. 2000.
  •  11
    Why is There a Problem with Moral Dilemmas?
    Southwest Philosophy Review 12 (2): 189-206. 1996.
  •  77
    The ethics of conspiracy theorizing
    Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4): 457-468. 2009.