•  3
    Compromises and Fairness
    Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 21-31. 2024.
    _Many philosophers have pointed out that a compromise that is fair in one sense can be unfair in another. In this paper, I will briefly introduce different ways in which compromises can be “fair” and then analyze them. In particular, I compare the importance of what I call (a) split-the-difference fairness and (b) end-state fairness. I will defend split-the-difference fairness against an important objection—that a person’s false belief about her fair share does not change what her fair share act…Read more
  •  26
    Climate Change Conspiracy Theories
    In Pellegrino Gianfranco & Marcello Di Paola (eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Climate Change, Springer Nature. pp. 1161-1177. 2023.
    Climate change conspiracy theories raise many questions. Some of the questions are philosophical in nature. They include issues such as how to define “conspiracy theory” (a conceptual question), what the ethical status of conspiracy theorizing is (a moral question), and how decision-makers should deal with climate change conspiracy theories (a practical question). One way to define “climate change conspiracy theory” is to say that they are explanations that (1) refer to conspiracies, (2) are not…Read more
  •  39
  •  49
    In this article I shall undertake a preliminary exploration of the notion of second best. I shall follow a three-step strategy. First, I shall introduce some applications of the theorem of the second best in different fields of philosophy and social sciences. Secondly, I shall make several conceptual distinctions related to the theorem. I aim to show that there are certain theoretical results that are similar but not identical to the theorem of the second best, and that the notion of second best…Read more
  •  41
    Moderate Conventionalism and Cultural Appropriation
    Etikk I Praksis - Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics 1 81-88. 2019.
    Cultural appropriation, also called cultural borrowing, has been the topic of much discussion in recent years. Roughly speaking, cultural appropriation happens when someone outside of a cultural or ethnic group takes or uses some object that is characteristic or in some way important to the group without the group’s permission. Individuals who find cultural appropriation unproblematic have often argued that if we express moral criticism of the use of traditional Sami outfits by non-Sami, then we…Read more
  •  38
    On Political Conspiracy Theories
    Journal of Political Philosophy 17 (2): 185-201. 2009.
  •  11
    On the Nontechnical Limits of Brain Imaging
    Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (4): 527-541. 2020.
    Since the advent of neuroimaging technologies, their limits and possibilities have captivated scientists and philosophers. Thus far, the debate has largely concerned technical limits of our capacity to “read minds.” This paper extends the discussion concerning the limitations of neuroimaging to issues that are not dependent on technical issues or on our understanding of the complexity of brain activities. The author argues that there is a serious chance that brain scanning cannot replace usual i…Read more
  •  43
    Black magic (henceforth BM) is acting in an attempt to harm human beings through supernatural means. Examples include the employment of spells, the use of special curses, the burning of objects related to the purported victim, and the use of pins with voodoo dolls. For the sake of simplicity, we shall focus on attempts to kill through BM. The moral attitude towards BM has not been, as far as we know, significantly discussed in contemporary analytic philosophy. Yet the topic brings up interesting…Read more
  •  23
    Regret and Obligation
    The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 12 24-29. 1998.
    In Albert Camus' 1950 play Just Assassins, terrorists are at work in nineteenth-century Russia. They kill people, and they all believe that there is a superior moral reason for doing so. But they also know that killing is wrong. In their own view, they are innocent criminals; innocent, because their action is justified, but criminals, because they kill. So tacitly they conclude that they deserve punishment that will remove the regret from their shoulders. Their execution, by the same despotic au…Read more
  •  15
    The Social Concept of Disease
    Theoretical Medicine: An International Journal for the Philosophy and Methodology of Medical Research and Practice 17 (4): 353-361. 1996.
    In the discussion of such social questions as "how should alcoholics be treated by society?" and "what kind of people are responsible in the face of the law?", is "disease" a value-free or value-laden notion, a natural or a normative one? It seems, for example, that by the utterance 'alcoholism should be classified as a disease' we mean something like the following: the condition called alcoholism is similar in morally relevant respects to conditions that we uncontroversially label diseases and,…Read more
  •  43
    Distribution and ignorance
    Synthese 198 (3): 2641-2657. 2019.
    According to the so-called presumption of equality, a person who does not know whether there is an acceptable reason for differential treatment should just presume the similarity of the cases and treat them equally. If we assume that the presumption of equality is an acceptable moral principle, at least when the allocation cannot be postponed and an equal distribution of goods is possible, then an important question arises: when exactly does the allocator have sufficient reasons for differential…Read more
  •  4
    Political Liberalism and Religious Ideals
    Res Cogitans 4 (2). 2007.
  •  3
    From the Guest Editor
    Res Cogitans 8 (1). 2011.
  •  36
    On the presumption of equality
    Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 22 (7): 809-822. 2019.
  •  16
    When a Person Feels that She Is Guilty and Believes that She Is Not Guilty
    The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 9 149-152. 2006.
    Guilt feelings are an important part of our emotional life that is relevant to moral philosophy, and guilt feelings raise many theoretically interesting questions. One such question is the problem of how it is possible that sometimes people seem to feel guilty because of an act they have committed even if they believe that the act is not wrong and that it does not have any moral costs. A person raised in a religious family may have been taught that going to the theater is wrong, and even if she …Read more
  •  103
    The ethics of conspiracy theorizing
    Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (4): 457-468. 2009.
  • Poverty
    In H. Ten Have & B. Gordijn (ed.), Handbook on Global Bioethics, . pp. 785-798. 2014.
  •  43
    This is the first collection of essays of philosophical thanatology that explicitly connects the metaphysical and the ethical questions of death, including some bioethical questions. The volume has four sections, and the discussion moves from historical and theoretical problems to practical issues of bioethics. However, as the editor of the book, James Stacey Taylor, has surely intended, the practical questions discussed are closely related to traditional metaphysical problems, most notably to t…Read more
  •  31
    Are there Alternative Methods in Ethics?
    Grazer Philosophische Studien 52 (1): 173-189. 1996.
    Do all methods of moral justification resemble the method of reflective equilibrium in presupposing that moral judgment's being justified depends at least in part on its being appropriately related to our actual substantial moral views? Can a moral judgment be justified without such a presupposition? I shall distinguish three versions of the no-option argument According to any version of the no-option argument, there is certain fact which characterizes moral theories, and that fact implies that …Read more
  •  21
    In this book the practical dimension of social justice is explained using the analysis and discussion of a variety of well-known topics. These include: the relation between theory and practice in normative political philosophy; the issue of justice under uncertainty; the question of whether we can and should unmask social injustices by means of conspiracy theories; the issues of privacy and the right to privacy; the issue of how certain psychological states may affect our moral obligations, in p…Read more
  •  53
    The social concept of disease
    Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 17 (4). 1996.
    In the discussion of such social questions as how should alcoholics be treated by society? and what kind of people are responsible in the face of the law?, is disease a value-free or value-laden notion, a natural or a normative one? It seems, for example, that by the utterance alcoholism should be classified as a disease we mean something like the following: the condition called alcoholism is similar in morally relevant respects to conditions that we uncontroversially label diseases, and therefo…Read more
  •  29
    The topic of the paper is the justness of the so-called global redistributive wars — wars whose prime purpose would be the correction of global economic and power structures that are said to cause suffering in poor countries. My aim is to comment on Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen’s argument concerning the implications of Thomas Pogge’s theory of global poverty. Pogge has argued that affluent coun-tries uphold global institutional structures that have a significant causal role in leading to the poverty…Read more
  •  16
    On Disassociating Oneself from Collective Responsiblity
    Social Theory and Practice 23 (1): 93-108. 1997.
  •  41
    Demands for Forgiveness
    Heythrop Journal 53 (5): 724-730. 2012.
  •  29
    Genes and Morality: New Essays
    with Veikko Launis and Juhani Pietarinen
    Rodopi. 1999.
    Most public discussion has focused on those effects of genetic research that are considered in some way unwanted or unpleasant. For example, there has been much debate concerning the risks and the ethical appropriateness of genetic screening, gene therapy, and agricultural applications based on genetic techniques. It often claimed that genetic research may cause new problems such as genetic discrimination, stigmatization, environmental risks, or mistreatment of animals. Genes and Morality: New E…Read more
  •  57
    The Ethics of Alien Attitudes
    The Monist 95 (3): 511-532. 2012.
  •  35
    Privacy and Self-Presentation
    Res Publica 23 (2): 213-226. 2017.
    It has often been argued that one of the reasons why we should value privacy is that it enables self-presentation and impression management. According to this approach, it is valuable to be able to govern the impression one gives, as the capacity to govern impressions is an instrument by which people take care of their various social relationships. In this paper I will take a closer look at that approach on privacy, with specific reference to the alleged threats to privacy created by brain imagi…Read more