•  10
    Important decisions that impact humans lives, livelihoods, and the natural environment are increasingly being automated. Delegating tasks to so-called automated decision-making systems can improve efficiency and enable new solutions. However, these benefits are coupled with ethical challenges. For example, ADMS may produce discriminatory outcomes, violate individual privacy, and undermine human self-determination. New governance mechanisms are thus needed that help organisations design and deplo…Read more
  •  1
    The ethics of information warfare (edited book)
    with Luciano Floridi
    Springer International Publishing. 2014.
    This book offers an overview of the ethical problems posed by Information Warfare, and of the different approaches and methods used to solve them, in order to provide the reader with a better grasp of the ethical conundrums posed by this new form of warfare. The volume is divided into three parts, each comprising four chapters. The first part focuses on issues pertaining to the concept of Information Warfare and the clarifications that need to be made in order to address its ethical implications…Read more
  •  22
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, in a way similar to how they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. Two major risks ar…Read more
  • This volume focuses on the responsibilities of online service providers (OSPs) in contemporary societies. It examines the complexity and global dimensions of the rapidly evolving and serious challenges posed by the exponential development of Internet services and resources. It looks at the major actors – such as Facebook, Google, Twitter, and Yahoo! – and their significant influence on the informational environment and users’ interactions within it, as well as the responsibilities and liabilitie…Read more
  •  110
    Artificial intelligence and the ‘Good Society’: the US, EU, and UK approach
    with Corinne Cath, Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt, and Luciano Floridi
    Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2): 505-528. 2018.
    In October 2016, the White House, the European Parliament, and the UK House of Commons each issued a report outlining their visions on how to prepare society for the widespread use of artificial intelligence. In this article, we provide a comparative assessment of these three reports in order to facilitate the design of policies favourable to the development of a ‘good AI society’. To do so, we examine how each report addresses the following three topics: the development of a ‘good AI society’; …Read more
  •  47
    How AI can be a force for good
    with Luciano Floridi
    Science Magazine 361 (6404): 751-752. 2018.
    This article argues that an ethical framework will help to harness the potential of AI while keeping humans in control.
  •  11
    This paper argues that there is an urgent need for an international doctrine for cyberspace skirmishes before they escalate into conventional warfare.
  •  23
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical d…Read more
  •  25
    The ethics of digital well-being: a thematic review
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4): 2313-2343. 2020.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several k…Read more
  •  66
    Trusting artificial intelligence in cybersecurity is a double-edged sword
    with Tom McCutcheon and Luciano Floridi
    Philosophy and Technology 32 1-15. 2019.
    Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) for cybersecurity tasks are attracting greater attention from the private and the public sectors. Estimates indicate that the market for AI in cybersecurity will grow from US$1 billion in 2016 to a US$34.8 billion net worth by 2025. The latest national cybersecurity and defence strategies of several governments explicitly mention AI capabilities. At the same time, initiatives to define new standards and certification procedures to elicit users’ trust …Read more
  •  70
    Artificial intelligence crime: an interdisciplinary analysis of foreseeable threats and solutions
    with Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, and Luciano Floridi
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1): 89-120. 2020.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated mark…Read more
  •  1141
    Digital psychiatry: ethical risks and opportunities for public health and well-Being
    with Christopher Burr, Jessica Morley, and Luciano Floridi
    IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society 1 (1): 21-33. 2020.
    Common mental health disorders are rising globally, creating a strain on public healthcare systems. This has led to a renewed interest in the role that digital technologies may have for improving mental health outcomes. One result of this interest is the development and use of artificial intelligence for assessing, diagnosing, and treating mental health issues, which we refer to as ‘digital psychiatry’. This article focuses on the increasing use of digital psychiatry outside of clinical settings…Read more
  •  90
    Ethical guidelines for COVID-19 tracing apps
    with Jessica Morley, Josh Cowls, and Luciano Floridi
    Nature 582 29-31. 2020.
    Technologies to rapidly alert people when they have been in contact with someone carrying the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are part of a strategy to bring the pandemic under control. Currently, at least 47 contact-tracing apps are available globally. They are already in use in Australia, South Korea and Singapore, for instance. And many other governments are testing or considering them. Here we set out 16 questions to assess whether — and to what extent — a contact-tracing app is ethically justifiable…Read more
  •  158
    The ethics of AI in health care: a mapping review
    with Jessica Morley, Caio C. V. Machado, Christopher Burr, Josh Cowls, Indra Joshi, and Luciano Floridi
    Social Science & Medicine 260. 2020.
    This article presents a mapping review of the literature concerning the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in health care. The goal of this review is to summarise current debates and identify open questions for future research. Five literature databases were searched to support the following research question: how can the primary ethical risks presented by AI-health be categorised, and what issues must policymakers, regulators and developers consider in order to be ‘ethically mindful? A seri…Read more
  •  102
    A definition, benchmark and database of AI for social good initiatives
    with Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsmadaos, and Luciano Floridi
    Nature Machine Intelligence 3 111-115. 2021.
    Initiatives relying on artificial intelligence (AI) to deliver socially beneficial outcomes—AI for social good (AI4SG)—are on the rise. However, existing attempts to understand and foster AI4SG initiatives have so far been limited by the lack of normative analyses and a shortage of empirical evidence. In this Perspective, we address these limitations by providing a definition of AI4SG and by advocating the use of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a benchmark for tracing…Read more
  •  120
    The AI gambit — leveraging artificial intelligence to combat climate change: opportunities, challenges, and recommendations
    with Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsamados, and Luciano Floridi
    In Vodafone Institute for Society and Communications. 2021.
    In this article we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change and it contribute to combating the climate crisis effectively. However, the development of AI also raises two sets of problems when considering climate change: the possible exacerbation of social and ethical challenges alread…Read more
  •  40
    In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence, entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’. This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan industry, and to emerge as the driving force in defining ethical norms and standards for AI. Several reports have analysed specific aspects of China’s AI policies or have assessed the country’s technical capabi…Read more
  •  59
    The ethics of algorithms: key problems and solutions
    with Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, and Luciano Floridi
    AI and Society. 2021.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated anal…Read more
  •  439
    Ethical aspects of multi-stakeholder recommendation systems
    The Information Society 37 (1): 35-45. 2021.
    This article analyses the ethical aspects of multistakeholder recommendation systems (RSs). Following the most common approach in the literature, we assume a consequentialist framework to introduce the main concepts of multistakeholder recommendation. We then consider three research questions: who are the stakeholders in a RS? How are their interests taken into account when formulating a recommendation? And, what is the scientific paradigm underlying RSs? Our main finding is that multistakeholde…Read more
  •  1002
    Healthcare systems across the globe are struggling with increasing costs and worsening outcomes. This presents those responsible for overseeing healthcare with a challenge. Increasingly, policymakers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of the solution will be ‘Artificial Intelligence’ (AI) – particularly Machine Learning (ML). This argument stems not from the belief that all healthcare needs will soon be taken care of by “robot doctors.” In…Read more
  •  14
    Is Cybersecurity a Public Good?
    Minds and Machines 29 (3): 349-354. 2019.
  •  1848
    How to Design AI for Social Good: Seven Essential Factors
    with Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, and Thomas C. King
    Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3): 1771-1796. 2020.
    The idea of artificial intelligence for social good is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to tackle social problems through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies. This article addresses this gap by identifying seven ethical factor…Read more
  • Nato ccd Coe workshop on ‘ethics and policies for cyber warfare’ – a report
    with Ludovica Glorioso and Corinne Cath
    In Ludovica Glorioso & Mariarosaria Taddeo (eds.), Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations, Springer Verlag. 2017.
  •  6
    Ethics and Policies for Cyber Operations (edited book)
    with Ludovica Glorioso
    Springer Verlag. 2017.
  •  18
    Deterrence and Norms to Foster Stability in Cyberspace
    Philosophy and Technology 31 (3): 323-329. 2018.
    Deterrence in cyberspace is possible. But it requires an effort to develop a new domain-specific, conceptual, normative, and strategic framework. To be successful, cyber deterrence needs to shift from threatening to prevailing. I argue that by itself, deterrence is insufficient to ensure stability of cyberspace. An international regime of norms regulating state behaviour in cyberspace is necessary to complement cyber deterrence strategies and foster stability. Enforcing this regime requires an a…Read more
  •  1
    Solving Cyber Conflicts
    The Philosophers' Magazine 79 79-82. 2017.
  •  16