The Theory of Brain-Sign has been developed to replace the theory of consciousness. As is widely understood, consciousness is an unkown and unaccounted for state in the physical universe. Brain-sign, however, has a funadamental role in the social functioning of organisms. It is particularly developed in humans who can create and share scientific theories. But it entails an extensive reconstruction of brain operation. This sets a target for neuroscience in its analysis of how the brain works.