•  10
    Silence as a Christian Experience and Practice
    Studia Monastica 62 253-274. 2020.
    Silence often plays a significant role in Christian experience and practice. However, the varieties of silence and the effects of silence for good and. bad merit examination. It is important to distinguish between physical, auditory, and metaphorical silence, and bet- ween experiencing silence as "quiet" and experiencing silence as keeping quiet . Silence can be an instrumental good as well as an expressive good, a concomitant good, or a constitutive good. Christian monks, theologians, and other…Read more
  •  16
    Questioning Bonhoeffer on Temptation
    Irish Theological Quarterly 85 (3): 265-285. 2020.
    This article engages critically and constructively with Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s biblical study ‘Temptation’ (1938). His study does not always do justice to the text of the New Testament or the theodicean and hamartiological issues pertaining to temptation. And his position that biblically temptation is not the testing of strength, but rather the loss of all strength and defenceless deliverance into Satan’s hands, is hard to defend. However, Bonhoeffer’s idea of Christ-reality undergirds his sugges…Read more
  •  2090
    Examining Nontherapeutic Circumcision
    Health Matrix 28 1-77. 2018.
    This study in moral, political, and legal philosophy contends that it is morally impermissible to circumcise male minors without a medical indication (nontherapeutic circumcision). Male minors have a moral anticipatory autonomy right-in-trust not to be circumcised. This right depends on norms of autonomy and bodily integrity. These norms generate three direct non-consequentialist arguments against nontherapeutic circumcision: (1) the loss of nonrenewable functional tissue, (2) genital salience, …Read more
  •  4
    Commons, Anticommons, and Community in Biotechnological Assets
    Theoretical Inquiries in Law 10 (1): 271-298. 2009.
    I argue for three theses: T1 — Access to scientific knowledge can be used to reinforce existing scientific communities and sometimes generate new ones. T2 — Community can be used to generate scientific knowledge, patent reform, scientific research, medical diagnostics, and trade secrets and occasionally patents. T3 — On the spectrum from commons to semicommons to private property to anticommons, an anticommons can arise if a biotechnological asset is fuzzily defined. I defend these propositions …Read more
  • The Right to Private Property
    with Jeremy Waldron
    Philosophy and Public Affairs 21 (2): 196-206. 1992.
  • Intuition and Security in Moral Philosophy
    [University of Michigan, Department of Law]. 1984.
  •  29
    What is stemness?
    with Yan Leychkis and Jessica L. Richardson
    Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 40 (4): 312-320. 2009.
    This paper, addressed to both philosophers of science and stem cell biologists, aims to reduce the obscurity of and disagreements over the nature of stemness. The two most prominent current theories of stemness—the entity theory and the state theory—are both biologically and philosophically unsatisfactory. Improved versions of these theories are likely to converge. Philosophers of science can perform a much needed service in clarifying and formulating ways of testing entity and state theories of…Read more
  •  47
    Transplantation, chemical inheritance, and the identity of organs
    British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2): 555-570. 1994.
  • A Theory of Property
    Mind 100 (2): 300-302. 1991.
  • Right Answers, Preexisting Rights, and Fairness
    University of Georgia, School of Law]. 1977.
  •  12
    Kierkegaard on Purity of Heart
    International Philosophical Quarterly 56 (3): 315-336. 2016.
    Kierkegaard holds that purity of heart is to will one thing. But his treatment of despair, double-mindedness, and self-deception runs into difficulties over whether one can choose beliefs about oneself, which theories of the will could establish its unity, and whether the individual who fails to become pure of heart is blameworthy. Pace Kierkegaard, willing the good does not make immutable the person who so wills, and purity of heart should not be entirely will-based. This essay articulates a br…Read more
  •  32
    Aristotle's biology and the transplantation of organs
    Journal of the History of Biology 26 (1): 109-129. 1993.
    It would be redundant to repeat the general thesis and specific claims advanced in the introduction. Yet in concluding I should like to draw attention to several broader themes that run through the article. One is that understanding Aristotle's biology demands attention to his psychology and metaphysics as well as to what some readers may regard as his strictly biological writings.Another is that Aristotle's views on homonymy and potentiality
  •  1
    The Moral Criticism of Law
    with David A. J. Richards
    Rutgers University. 1977.
  •  15
    Property, incorporation, and projection
    Noûs 23 (3): 291-306. 1989.
  •  121
    An Uneasy Case against Property Rights in Body Parts*: STEPHEN R. MUNZER
    Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (2): 259-286. 1994.
    This essay deals with property rights in body parts that can be exchanged in a market. The inquiry arises in the following context. With some exceptions, the laws of many countries permit only the donation, not the sale, of body parts. Yet for some years there has existed a shortage of body parts for transplantation and other medical uses. It might then appear that if more sales were legally permitted, the supply of body parts would increase, because people would have more incentive to sell than…Read more
  •  28
    Self-abandonment and self-denial quietism, calvinism, and the prospect of hell
    Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (4): 747-781. 2005.
    Self-abandonment and self-denial are, respectively, Catholic and hyper-Calvinist analogues of each other. Roughly, each requires the surrendering of a person to God's will and providence through faith, hope, and love. Should the self-abandoning/self-denying individual accept his or her own damnation if that be God's will? This article, which is virtually alone in discussing the Catholic and Reformed Protestant traditions together, answers "No." The unqualified self-abandonment present in quietis…Read more
  • New Essays in the Political Theory of Property (edited book)
    Cambridge Univ. Press. 2001.
  •  72
    A Theory of Property
    Philosophical Review 101 (4): 936-938. 1992.
    This book represents a major new statement on the issue of property rights. It argues for the justification of some rights of private property while showing why unequal distributions of private property are indefensible. Three features of the book are especially salient: it offers a challenging new pluralist theory of justification; the argument integrates perceptive analyses of the great classical theorists Aristotle, Locke, Hegel and Marx with a discussion of contemporary philosophers such as …Read more
  • Plants, torts, and intellectual property
    In J. W. Harris, Timothy Andrew Orville Endicott, Joshua Getzler & Edwin Peel (eds.), Properties of Law: Essays in Honour of Jim Harris, Oxford University Press. 2006.
  •  32
    Innocence
    Faith and Philosophy 29 (2): 125-143. 2012.
    There are at least five types of innocence. Innocence of various, but not all, types can be possessed, then lost, and later still regained or even surpassed. The most important of these I call “mature innocence,” which is a confirmed state of character, attained reflectively and by an individual’s exercise of effort and agency, that is highly resistant to sin and moral wrongdoing. Mature innocence can be either a secular or a specifically Christian ideal. To surpass mature innocence is to attain…Read more
  • New Essays in the Legal and Political Theory of Property (edited book)
    Cambridge University Press. 2001.
    There has always been much controversy surrounding property rights in legal and political philosophy. Thinkers such as Plato, Locke, Kant, Hegel and Marx have all offered different views on the idea of property. This collection of essays, written by some of the most eminent scholars in the field, examines the most central issues of property theory from a variety of perspectives. The essays discuss whether property may be dissipated or used imprudently with impunity, and analyse how a person's pr…Read more
  •  3
    A Theory of Property
    Cambridge University Press. 1990.
    This book represents a major new statement on the issue of property rights. It argues for the justification of some rights of private property while showing why unequal distributions of private property are indefensible. Three features of the book are especially salient: it offers a challenging new pluralist theory of justification; the argument integrates perceptive analyses of the great classical theorists Aristotle, Locke, Hegel and Marx with a discussion of contemporary philosophers such as …Read more
  •  19
    Beggars of God: The Christian Ideal of Mendicancy
    Journal of Religious Ethics 27 (2). 1999.
    In contemporary Western societies, public begging is associated with economic failure and social opprobrium--the lot of street people. So Christians may be puzzled by the fact that an interpretation of the imitation of Christ in the late Middle Ages elevated religious mendicancy into an ideal form of life. Although voluntary religious begging cannot easily be resurrected as a Christian ideal today, the author argues that a radical attitude and practice of trust, self-abandonment, and acknowledgm…Read more
  •  1
    Review (review)
    Theory and Decision 7 (4): 331-334. 1976.