•  65
    AI4People—an ethical framework for a good AI society: opportunities, risks, principles, and recommendations
    with Luciano Floridi, Josh Cowls, Monica Beltrametti, Raja Chatila, Patrice Chazerand, Virginia Dignum, Robert Madelin, Ugo Pagallo, Francesca Rossi, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, and Effy Vayena
    Minds and Machines 28 (4): 689-707. 2018.
    This article reports the findings of AI4People, an Atomium—EISMD initiative designed to lay the foundations for a “Good AI Society”. We introduce the core opportunities and risks of AI for society; present a synthesis of five ethical principles that should undergird its development and adoption; and offer 20 concrete recommendations—to assess, to develop, to incentivise, and to support good AI—which in some cases may be undertaken directly by national or supranational policy makers, while in oth…Read more
  •  20
    Key ethical challenges in the European Medical Information Framework
    with Luciano Floridi, Ugo Pagallo, Burkhard Schafer, Peggy Valcke, Effy Vayena, Janet Addison, Nigel Hughes, Nathan Lea, Caroline Sage, Bart Vannieuwenhuyse, and Dipak Kalra
    Minds and Machines 29 (3): 355-371. 2019.
    The European Medical Information Framework project, funded through the IMI programme, has designed and implemented a federated platform to connect health data from a variety of sources across Europe, to facilitate large scale clinical and life sciences research. It enables approved users to analyse securely multiple, diverse, data via a single portal, thereby mediating research opportunities across a large quantity of research data. EMIF developed a code of practice to ensure the privacy protect…Read more
  •  8
    Autonomous Driving Ethics: from Trolley Problem to Ethics of Risk
    with Maximilian Geisslinger, Franziska Poszler, Johannes Betz, and Markus Lienkamp
    Philosophy and Technology 1-23. forthcoming.
    In 2017, the German ethics commission for automated and connected driving released 20 ethical guidelines for autonomous vehicles. It is now up to the research and industrial sectors to enhance the development of autonomous vehicles based on such guidelines. In the current state of the art, we find studies on how ethical theories can be integrated. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no framework for motion planning has yet been published which allows for the true implementation of any practic…Read more
  •  7
    Dilemma situations involving the choice of which human life to save in the case of unavoidable accidents are expected to arise only rarely in the context of autonomous vehicles. Nonetheless, the scientific community has devoted significant attention to finding appropriate and acceptable automated decisions in the event that AVs or drivers of AVs were indeed to face such situations. Awad and colleagues, in their now famous paper “The Moral Machine Experiment”, used a “multilingual online ‘serious…Read more
  •  1
    The Honorable Merchant as an ideal of business ethics has a long-standing tradition. However, this ideal focusses a lot on the individual person and less on situational conditions, constraints and incentives under which people act. The Order Ethics approach helps conceptualize and justify why business ethics for the globalized market economy might shift this focus and put situational conditions on top of the agenda. This holds within companies as well: Instead of insisting on the ideal of the ho…Read more
  •  2
    Competition and Ethics
    Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy 49 41-46. 2018.
    “Competition” is a concept which many ethicists cast a skeptical eye on. Often, it is associated with the erosion of values and morality under competitive pressure, with “marketization” or with commercialization. I will shed a differentiated light on this concept, both from an economic, an ethical and an intercultural point of view. Competition, after all, can be instrumental for ethical goals.
  •  2
    Naturalized Philosophy of Science and Economic Method
    The Paideia Archive: Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 37 165-179. 1998.
    This paper draws a connection between recent developments in naturalized philosophy of science and in economics. Social epistemology is one part of the naturalistic enterprise that has become especially important. Some approaches in this field use methods borrowed from economics, a fact that has often been overlooked. But there are also genuinely economic approaches to the problems of science and knowledge. Some of these approaches can be seen as contributions to an "economic epistemology." Whil…Read more
  •  2
    Teaching Business Ethics with Experiments
    with Matthias Uhl
    Journal of Business Ethics Education 15 203-217. 2018.
    Teaching experiments are valuable when it comes to sensitizing students for business ethics that addresses the behavior of agents in modern societies. Many students are coined by the often predominantly individualistic ethical reasoning that they are accustomed to from their living environments. In our classes, we confront them with the volatility of their own ethical behavior by the use of experiments that ideally work with real incentives. We believe experiments to be a powerful tool not only …Read more
  •  1
    The Idea of Justice in Literature (edited book)
    with Hiroshi Kabashima, Shing-I. Liu, and Aurelio de Prada García
    Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. 2018.
  •  1
    The Praxis of Diversity (edited book)
    with Christiane Lütge and Markus Faltermeier
    Springer Verlag. 2020.
  •  19
    Throughout its age-old tradition, philosophy has continuously been presented with new challenges. The latest one in this series comes from the experimental disciplines and their methodology: experimental philosophy has, during the last 10 to 15 years, increasingly gained reputation, and it has certainly been a controversial issue. Within this movement, the field of ethics deserves more attention. This article aims to give not a complete overview of, but at least an introduction to, the newly ris…Read more
  •  4
    The Honorable Merchant – Between Modesty and Risk-Taking: Intercultural and Literary Aspects (edited book)
    with Christoph Strosetzki
    Springer Verlag. 2019.
  • Deliberation and Decision explores ways of bridging the gap between two rival approaches to theorizing about democratic institutions: constitutional economics on the one hand and deliberative democracy on the other. The two approaches offer very different accounts of the functioning and legitimacy of democratic institutions. Although both highlight the importance of democratic consent, their accounts of such consent could hardly be more different. Constitutional economics models individuals as s…Read more
  •  129
    The German Ethics Code for Automated and Connected Driving
    Philosophy and Technology 30 (4): 547-558. 2017.
    The ethics of autonomous cars and automated driving have been a subject of discussion in research for a number of years :28–58, 2016). As levels of automation progress, with partially automated driving already becoming standard in new cars from a number of manufacturers, the question of ethical and legal standards becomes virulent. For exam-ple, while automated and autonomous cars, being equipped with appropriate detection sensors, processors, and intelligent mapping material, have a chance of b…Read more
  • Zunächst einmal möchten wir klären, was der Begriff ökonomischer Bildung umfasst, um in einem zweiten Schritt klären zu können, welche Teilaspekte von ökonomischer Bildung möglicherweise verbindlich gelehrt werden sollten – und welche Teilaspekte etwa auch nur Teil von Spezialausbildungen sein könnten. Wir werden dabei zu dem Schluss kommen, dass vor allem die Politische Ökonomie – also ein Fach, das einen Schwerpunkt auf ordnungsökonomische und ordnungsethische Problemstellungen legt – ein Kan…Read more
  •  49
    This article discusses the possibility of an economic foundation for a work and savings ethic. In particular, James M. Buchanan has, in his late works, endorsed traditional 'Puritan' demands for working and saving more, while arguing that this is beneficial for all members of a society. I will question Buchanan's analysis of the 'Puritan' ethic both in normative and methodological respects before aiming at a constructive interpretation.
  • Naturgesetze in der Ökonomik?
    Philosophia Naturalis 37 (2): 385-393. 2000.
  •  71
    In many countries around the world, the mechanisms of civil society have become very commonplace. Large companies are under constant pressure from civil society organizations to change their policies, strategies and approaches. The tobacco industry in particular is under heavy pressure in many parts of the world. Smoking has been prohibited in many public as well as private or semi-private areas in a large number of countries. However, while smoking as an addiction seems to be declining in some …Read more
  •  581
    Fundamentals of Order Ethics: Law, Business Ethics and the Financial Crisis
    Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie Beihefte 130 11-21. 2012.
    During the current financial crisis, the need for an alternative to a laissez-faire ethics of capitalism (the Milton Friedman view) becomes clear. I argue that we need an order ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. I will point to some aspects of order ethics which highlight the importance of rules, e.g. global rules for the financial markets. In this regard, order ethics (“Ordnungsethik”) is the complement o…Read more
  •  91
    Economic ethics, business ethics and the idea of mutual advantages
    Business Ethics: A European Review 14 (2): 108-118. 2005.
    Many traditional conceptions of ethics use categories and arguments that have been developed under conditions of pre-modern societies and are not useful in the age of globalisation anymore. I argue that we need an economic ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. This conception is then elaborated further in the area of business ethics. It is illustrated in the case for banning child labour.
  • The Handbook of Business Ethics: Philosophical Foundations is a standard interdisciplinary reference handbook in the field of business ethics. Articles by notable philosophers and economists examine fundamental concepts, theories and questions of business ethics: Are morality and self-interest compatible? What is meant by a just price? What did the Scholastic philosophers think about business? The handbook will cover the entire philosophical basis of business ethics. Articles range from historic…Read more
  • Wettbewerb der Solidarsysteme
    Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik (22): 329-348. 2014.
    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, there is a wide consensus in society and science that a modern society cannot do without a market economy. The current political and academic debate revolves primarily around the question of what kind of social system a modern society needs. This question includes important normative as well as instrumental aspects. In this essay, we want to pursue the question of how modern societies can best achieve progress in both dimensions. The standard response — b…Read more
  •  24
    Business Ethics and Risk Management (edited book)
    with Johanna Jauernig
    Springer. 2014.
    This volume explores various aspects of risk taking. It offers an analysis of financial, entrepreneurial and social risks, as well as a discussion of the ethical implications of empirical findings. The main issues examined in the book are the financial crisis and its implications for business ethics. The book discusses unethical behaviour as a reputational risk (e.g., in the case of Goldman Sachs) and the question is raised as to what extent the financial crisis has changed the banks’ entreprene…Read more
  •  40
    Order Ethics: Bridging the Gap Between Contractarianism and Business Ethics
    with Thomas Armbrüster and Julian Müller
    Journal of Business Ethics 136 (4): 687-697. 2016.
    Contract-based approaches have been a focus of attention in business ethics. As one of the grand traditions in political philosophy, contractarianism is founded on the notion that we will never resolve deep moral disagreement. Classical philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, or recent ones like Rawls and Gaus, seek to solve ethical conflicts on the level of social rules and procedures. Recent authors in business ethics have sought to utilize contract-based approaches for their field and to apply it…Read more
  •  64
    Experimental Ethics (edited book)
    with Christoph Luetge, Hannes Rusch, and Matthias Uhl
    Palgrave-Macmillan. 2014.
    This volume gives an overview of the rising field of Experimental Ethics. It is organized into five main parts: PART I – Introduction: An Experimental Philosophy of Ethics? // PART II – Applied Experimental Ethics: Case studies // PART III – On Methodology // PART IV – Critical Reflections // PART V – Future Perspectives. Among the contributors: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Eric Schwitzgebel, Ezio di Nucci, Jacob Rosenthal, and Fernando Aguiar.
  •  38
    Experimentelle und Evolutionäre Ethik: Eine neue Synthese in der Moralphilosophie?
    with Hannes Rusch and Eckart Voland
    In Matthias Maring (ed.), Bereichsethiken im interdisziplinären Dialog, Kit Scientific Publishing. pp. 163-179. 2014.
    Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Darstellung des systematischen Zusammenhangs des mit dem Aufkommen der Experimentellen Philosophie neu entstandenen Teilbereichs der Experimentellen Ethik mit der spätestens seit den 1980er Jahren wieder populär gewordenen Evolutionären Ethik, einer Teildisziplin des philosophischen Naturalismus. Nach einer kurzen Charakterisierung beider ethischer Teilbereiche wird am Beispiel der metaethischen Frage nach der Objektivität moralischer Urteile dafür argumentiert, da…Read more
  •  2
    Wettbewerb im unternehmerischen Handeln
    In Martina Plümacher & Günter Abel (eds.), The Power of Distributed Perspectives, De Gruyter. pp. 61-76. 2016.