• Nietzsche on Kant on Beauty and Disinterestedness
    History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (1): 75-91. 2013.
  •  45
    Explaining human cruelty
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (3): 245-246. 2006.
    I ask four questions: (1) Why should we think that our hominid ancestor's predation is not just a causal influence but the main causal factor responsible for human cruelty? (2) Why not think of human cruelty as a necessary part of a syndrome in which other phenomena are necessarily involved? (3) What definitions of cruelty does Nell propose that we operate with? And (4) what about the meaning of cruelty for human beings?
  •  2
    Kant's Critique of the Power of Judgment: Critical Essays (edited book)
    Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2003.
    Includes twelve of the most important modern critical discussions of the Critique of the Power of Judgment, written by the leading Kant scholars and aestheticians of the twentieth century.
  •  75
    Good old supervenience: Mental causation on the cheap
    Synthese 106 (1): 67-101. 1996.
    I defend the view that strong psychophysical superveniences is necessary and sufficient to explain the causal efficacy of mental properties. I employ factual and counterfactual conditionals as defeasible criteria of causal efficacy. And I also deal with certain problems arising from disjunctive and conjunctive properties
  •  22
    Supervenience unthwarted: Rejoinder to Wicks
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 52 (4): 466-469. 1994.
  •  25
    Long live supervenience
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 50 (4): 319-322. 1992.
  •  47
    Aesthetics and art
    British Journal of Aesthetics 26 (3): 257-269. 1986.
  •  393
    Music, emotion and metaphor
    Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (4): 391-400. 2007.
    We describe music in terms of emotion. How should we understand this? Some say that emotion descriptions should be understood literally. Let us call those views “literalist.” By contrast “nonliteralists” deny this and say that such descriptions are typically metaphorical.1 This issue about the linguistic description of music is connected with a central issue about the na- ture of music. That issue is whether there is any essential connection between music and emotion. According to what we can ca…Read more
  •  303
    Appropriate Musical Metaphors
    Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 20 (38). 2009.
    I argue that we should avoid a unitary account of what makes metaphorical descriptions of music in terms of emotion appropriate. There are many different ways in which musical metaphors can be appropriate. The right view of metaphorical appropriateness is a generously pluralist one
  •  160
    Supervenience, reduction, and infinite disjunction
    Philosophia 24 (3-4): 321-30. 1995.
    Can a certain sort of property supervene on another sort of property without reducing to it? Many philosophers find the superveniencel irreducibility combination attractive in the philosophy of mind and in moral philosophy. They think that mental properties supervene upon physical properties but do not reduce to them, or that moral properties supervene upon natural properties without reducing to them. Other philosophers have tried to show that the combination is ultimately untenable, however att…Read more
  •  273
    Normativity and the Metaphysics of Mind
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1). 2010.
    I consider the metaphysical consequences of the view that propositional attitudes have essential normative properties. I argue that realism should take a weak rather than a strong form. I argue that expressivism cannot get off the ground. And I argue that eliminativism is self-refuting
  •  157
    Moral Supervenience
    Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20 (1): 240-262. 1995.
    morality? I want to pursue these questions by examining an argument against moral realism that Simon Blackburn has developed.' In parts 1 and 2, I consider..
  •  143
    The indifference argument
    Philosophical Studies 138 (1). 2008.
    I argue against motivational internalism. First I recharacterise the issue over moral motivation. Second I describe the indifference argument against motivation internalism. Third I consider appeals to irrationality that are often made in the face of this argument, and I show that they are ineffective. Lastly, I draw the motivational externalist conclusion and reflect on the nature of the issue.
  •  110
    Does Knowledge Depend on Truth?
    Acta Analytica 28 (2): 139-144. 2013.
    That knowledge does not depend on truth is a consequence of a basic principle concerning dependence applied to the case of knowledge: that A depends on C, and that B depends on C, do not mean that A depends on B. This is a standard causal scenario, where two things with a common cause are not themselves causally dependent. Similarly, knowledge that p depends in part on some combination of the belief that p, the fact that p and the proposition that p, and perhaps other facts or even objects. Trut…Read more
  •  2
    Scruton's Aesthetics (edited book)
    Palgrave-Macmillan. 2012.
  •  72
    Supervenience, reduction, and infinite disjunction
    Philosophia 26 (1-2): 321-330. 1998.
    Can a certain sort of property supervene on another sort of property without reducing to it? Many philosophers find the superveniencel irreducibility combination attractive in the philosophy of mind and in moral philosophy (Davidson 1980 and Moore 1903). They think that mental properties supervene upon physical properties but do not reduce to them, or that moral properties supervene upon natural properties without reducing to them. Other philosophers have tried to show that the combination is ul…Read more
  •  275
    Besires and the Motivation Debate
    Theoria 74 (1): 50-59. 2008.
    Abstract:  This article addresses a number of difficulties and complications in the standard formulations of motivational internalism, and considers what besires might be in the light of those difficulties and complications. Two notions of besire are then distinguished, before considering how different kinds of motivational internalism and different conceptions of besire fare against the significant argument that we may be indifferent to the demands of morality without irrationality.
  •  91
    Music, Essential Metaphor, and Private Language
    American Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1): 1. 2011.
    Music is elusive. describing it is problematic. In particular its aesthetic properties cannot be captured in literal description. Beyond very simple terms, they cannot be literally described. In this sense, the aesthetic description of music is essentially nonliteral. An adequate aesthetic description of music must have resort to metaphor or other nonliteral devices. I maintain that this is because of the nature of the aesthetic properties being described. I defend this view against an apparentl…Read more
  •  5
    Science and Ethics: Demarcation, Holism and Logical Consequences
    European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1): 126-138. 2010.
    : I argue that attempts to demarcation ethics from science are not jeopardized by the fact that conjunctions of moral claims may have empirically verifiable logical consequences.
  •  137
    A Priori Knowledge that I Exist
    Analytic Philosophy 54 (2): 189-208. 2013.
    I exist. That is something I know. Most philosophers think that Descartes was right that each of us knows that we exist. Furthermore most philosophers agree with Descartes that there is something special about how we know it. Agreement ends there. There is little agreement about exactly what is special about this knowledge. I shall present an account that is in some respects Cartesian in spirit, although I shall not pursue interpretive questions very far. On this account, I know that I exist a p…Read more
  •  86
    Listening to Music Together
    British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (4): 379-389. 2012.
    I discuss the social dimension of musical experience. I focus on the question of whether there is joint musical listening. One reason for this focus is that Adorno and those in his tradition give us little in the way of an understanding of what the social dimension of musical experience might be. We need a proper clear conception of the issue, which the issue of joint experience yields. I defend a radically individualistic view, while conceding that such a view, inspired by Hanslick, may have po…Read more
  • Rafael De Clerc
    Sztuka I Filozofia (Art and Philosophy) 35. 2009.
  •  122
    I shall be concerned with the metaphysical issues that Aesthetic Functionalism raises, and I shall here leave aside questions about whether the theory is extensionally adequate. Aesthetic Functionalism applies to a great many works of art (for example, it applies to most paintings and most music). It may or may not apply to all works of art. If it does not, then I can be taken to be providing a theory of those works that have aesthetic aspirations. To have given an account of their nature would …Read more
  •  234
    In defence of moderate aesthetic formalism
    Philosophical Quarterly 50 (201): 476-493. 2000.
    Most of the debate for and against aesthetic formalism in the twentieth century has been little more than a sequence of assertions, on both sides. But there is one discussion that stands out for its argumentative subtlety and depth, and that is Kendall Walton’s paper ‘Categories of Art’.1 In what follows I shall defend a certain version of formalism against the antiformalist arguments which Walton deploys. I want to show that while Walton’s arguments do indeed create insurmountable difficulties fo…Read more
  •  75
    Piękno
    Sztuka I Filozofia 30 254. 2007.
  •  206
    Against analytic moral functionalism
    Ratio 13 (3). 2000.
    I argue against the analytic moral functionalist view propounded by Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit. I focus on the ‘input’ clauses of our alleged ‘folk moral theory’. I argue that the examples they give of such input clauses cannot plausibly be interpreted as analytic truths. They are in fact substantive moral claims about the moral ‘domain’. It is a substantive claim that all human beings have equal moral standing. There are those who have rejected this, such as Herman Göring. He was loyal to …Read more
  •  288
    The normativity of the mental
    Philosophical Explorations 8 (1): 1-19. 2005.
    I describe and defend the view in a philosophy of mind that I call 'Normative Essentialism', according to which propositional attitudes have normative essences. Those normative essences are 'horizontal' rational requirements, by which I mean the requirement to have certain propositional attitudes given other propositional attitudes. Different propositional attitudes impose different horizontal rational requirements. I distinguish a stronger and a weaker version of this doctrine and argue for the…Read more
  • Estetyka i sztuka
    Roczniki Filozoficzne 36 (1): 185. 1988.
  •  24
    Groundrules in the Philosophy of Art
    Philosophy 70 (274). 1995.
    What are the groundrules in the philosophy of art? What criteria of adequacy should we use for assessing theories of art?
  •  119
    The concept of the aesthetic
    European Journal of Philosophy 6 (1). 1998.
    Can the contemporary concept of the ‘aesthetic’ be defended? Is it in good shape or is it sick? Should we retain it or dispense with it? The concept of the aesthetic is used to characterize a range of judgements and experiences. Let us begin with some examples of judgements which aestheticians classify as aesthetic, so that we have some idea of what we are talking about. These paradigm cases will anchor the ensuing discussion. Once we have some idea of which judgements are classified as aestheti…Read more